Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“The Christened Mulatresses”: Euro-African Families in a Slave-Trading Town’. (2013) [PDF]

Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“The Christened Mulatresses”: Euro-African Families in a Slave-Trading Town’. The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 70, no. 2, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2013, pp. 371–398.

In the 1760s “Mulatresse Lene” was cassaret (married) to Danish interim governor and slave trader Frantz Joachim Kühberg in Osu on the Gold Coast. The local history of Ga-Danish families such as hers in Osu illustrates how Euro-African women on the West African coast could benefit from marrying European slave traders and could use these marriages to expand their room for maneuver in the coastal society. By marrying European men, christening their children, and sending them to the church school at the Danish fort, Euro-African women claimed a powerful intermediary position in the racialized social hierarchy of the Atlantic slave trade, and as they did so they helped reproduce this same racial hierarchy. Yet Euro-African families were not just taking advantage of their position to widen their opportunities; they were also using it as a means of protection in a violent and stressful slave-trading environment. At the height of the slave trade in the second half of the eighteenth century, Africans participating in the slave trade—even elite Euro-Africans such as Kühberg and her family—were under pressure to protect themselves and their families from being sold across the Atlantic.

doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.70.2.0371.

PDF: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5309/willmaryquar.70.2.0371.

Ipsen, Pernille. ‘Sexualizing the Other: From Ethnopornography to Interracial Pornography in European Travel Writing about West African Women’. (2020)

Ipsen, Pernille. ‘Sexualizing the Other: From Ethnopornography to Interracial Pornography in European Travel Writing about West African Women’. Ethno-Pornography: Sexuality, Colonialism, and Archival Knowledge, Eds. Peter Herman Sigal, Zeb Tortorici, and Neil L Whitehead, 2020.

https://public.ebookcentral.proquest.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=6133845.

Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“Plant Ikke Upas-Træet Om Vor Bolig”: Colonial Haunting, Race, and Interracial Marriage in Hans Christian Andersen’s Mulatten (1840)’. (2016) [PDF]

Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“Plant Ikke Upas-Træet Om Vor Bolig”: Colonial Haunting, Race, and Interracial Marriage in Hans Christian Andersen’s Mulatten (1840)’. Scandinavian Studies, vol. 88, no. 2, Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 129–158.

doi:10.5406/scanstud.88.2.0129.

PDF: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/scanstud.88.2.0129.

Ipsen, Pernille. Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast. (2015)

Ipsen, Pernille. Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

Severine Brock’s first language was Ga, yet it was not surprising when, in 1842, she married Edward Carstensen. He was the last governor of Christiansborg, the fort that, in the eighteenth century, had been the center of Danish slave trading in West Africa. She was the descendant of Ga-speaking women who had married Danish merchants and traders. Their marriage would have been familiar to Gold Coast traders going back nearly 150 years. In Daughters of the Trade, Pernille Ipsen follows five generations of marriages between African women and Danish men, revealing how interracial marriage created a Euro-African hybrid culture specifically adapted to the Atlantic slave trade. 

Although interracial marriage was prohibited in European colonies throughout the Atlantic world, in Gold Coast slave-trading towns it became a recognized and respected custom. Cassare, or ‘keeping house,’ gave European men the support of African women and their kin, which was essential for their survival and success, while African families made alliances with European traders and secured the legitimacy of their offspring by making the unions official. 

For many years, Euro-African families lived in close proximity to the violence of the slave trade. Sheltered by their Danish names and connections, they grew wealthy and influential. But their powerful position on the Gold Coast did not extend to the broader Atlantic world, where the link between blackness and slavery grew stronger, and where Euro-African descent did not guarantee privilege. By the time Severine Brock married Edward Carstensen, their world had changed. Daughters of the Trade uncovers the vital role interracial marriage played in the coastal slave trade, the production of racial difference, and the increasing stratification of the early modern Atlantic world.

https://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15367.html

Thomsen, Jens Peter, Bolette Moldenhawer, and Tine Kallehave. Ethnic Differences in Education in Denmark: Survey Report. (2010) [PDF]

Thomsen, Jens Peter, Bolette Moldenhawer, and Tine Kallehave. Ethnic Differences in Education in Denmark: Survey Report. EDUMIGROM, 2010.

The primary purpose of this report is to give a descriptive and analytical account of the lives of minority urban youth at the end of their primary schooling by looking at their school experiences and achievements, plans for future education and work life, attitudes towards school, and relations to peers, as well as the shaping of identity among minority students. Focusing on youth in the 8th and 9th grades in primary school in Copenhagen, Denmark, the report not only differentiates among ethnic groups in order to identify significant social patterns among groups, but also explores how ethnic differentiations intersect with other variables relating to the students’ background (gender, parents’ socio-economic status and educational level, and so on), and characteristics of everyday social life (social interaction, peer relations, etc). The report aims to contribute to a growing body of research on early identity formation and interethnic relations among young people in primary schools as a way of understanding how and why social positions of young people are structured the way they are. 

PDF: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/?action=media.download&uuid=29EB1415-BE22-3ABB-578DDD71283F13E4

Gilliam, Laura. Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen: modvilje og forskelsbehandling. (2018)

Gilliam, Laura. Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen: modvilje og forskelsbehandling. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2018.

Minoritetsdanske drenge eller ’indvandrerdrenge’, som de typisk kaldes i den offentlige debat, forbindes ofte med dårlige skoleresultater, ballade og kriminalitet. Samtidig peger flere undersøgelser på, at drengene mødes med negative forventninger og oplever at blive set skævt til og forskelsbehandlet i skolen. 

I Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen. Modvilje og forskelsbehandling ser Laura Gilliam nærmere på drengenes position, selvforståelser og skolestrategier og diskuterer de sociale og kulturelle dynamikker, der er omkring etnicitet, racialisering, køn og skole. Med afsæt i interviews med 18 minoritetsdanske drenge beskriver hun, hvordan drengenes oplevelser af lærernes forventninger, modvilje og velvilje får betydning for deres præstationer og engagement i undervisningen. Positive forventninger og dialog om etnicitet og forskelsbehandling er afgørende, hvis de onde cirkler skal brydes. 

https://unipress.dk/udgivelser/m/minoritetsdanske-drenge-i-skolen/

PDF med forord og indholdsfortegnelse: http://samples.pubhub.dk/9788771848274.pdf .

Ahmad, Mahvish, and Karen Waltorp. ‘Kontroversen Om Exitcirklen: Racialiseringen Af Muslimske Kvinder i Den Danske Mediedebat’. (2019) [PDF]

Ahmad, Mahvish, and Karen Waltorp. ‘Kontroversen Om Exitcirklen: Racialiseringen Af Muslimske Kvinder i Den Danske Mediedebat’. Jordens Folk, Dansk Etnografisk Forening, 2019, pp. 65–77.

Er man kendt i de danske medier som muslimsk kvinde, er der en tendens til, at man enten bliver fejret som frigjort eller opfattet som undertrykt. Vi argumenterer for, at en sådan simplistisk repræsentation i modsætningspar udelukker mere nuancerede (selv)fortællinger og kan ses som et symptom på racialiseringen af muslimer i den danske offentlighed. Vi undersøger en kontrovers om statsstøtte, hvor to samfundsdebattører, hyldet som feminister, blev anklaget for at være skabs-islamister. 

http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/103051/

PDF: https://www.academia.edu/39715541/Kontroversen_om_Exitcirklen_Racialisering_af_muslimske_kvinder_i_den_danske_mediedebat

Vallgårda, Karen A. A. ‘Tying Children to God With Love: Danish Mission, Childhood, and Emotions in Colonial South India’. (2015)

Vallgårda, Karen A. A. ‘Tying Children to God With Love: Danish Mission, Childhood, and Emotions in Colonial South India’. Journal of Religious History, vol. 39, no. 4, 2015, pp. 595–613.

The article examines the politics of emotions, conversion, and childhood in the Danish Protestant Christian mission around the turn of the twentieth century in colonial South India. The emotional configuration of childhood that came to prevail in the Danish missionary community at this time was informed by a particular notion of the importance of intimate and tender feelings to the constitution of a rich Christian life. In order to win the children’s hearts for Christ, they had to be treated gently, even lovingly. The article shows how this sentimentalisation of childhood simultaneously served to displace Indian adults and parents and to include Indian children into what one might call the missionaries’ emotional community. And, while the ideal of gentle intimacy rendered corporal punishment less socially acceptable in the education of children, it involved a different kind of power — less tangible and visible, and therefore perhaps also more difficult to contest. As such, the article discloses the highly ambiguous political anatomy of love.

doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9809.12265.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-9809.12265

Vallgårda, Karen. ‘Can the Subaltern Woman Run? Gender, Race and Agency in Colonial Missionary Texts’. (2014)

Vallgårda, Karen. ‘Can the Subaltern Woman Run? Gender, Race and Agency in Colonial Missionary Texts’. Scandinavian Journal of History, vol. 39, no. 4, Routledge, Aug. 2014, pp. 472–486.

This article challenges the contention that it is not feasible to trace the agency of subaltern female subjects in colonial documents without at the same time distorting and even violating that very agency. Taking as its prism a letter written by a male Danish missionary chronicling a young Pariah woman’s escape from missionary control in early 20th-century South India, it argues that while a search for authentic, autonomous agency is a highly dubious endeavour, relinquishing attempts to recover the acts and interventions of persons at the bottom of social hierarchies is equally problematic. Suggesting a reading ‘along as well as against the grain’, the article tracks the ways in which the subaltern woman’s agency has been simultaneously recorded and denied, and argues for the necessity of probing both the possibilities and impossibilities presented by this type of a source.

doi:10.1080/03468755.2014.938112.

Simonsen, Gunvor. ‘Sovereignty, Mastery, and Law in the Danish West Indies, 1672–1733’. (2019) [PDF]

Simonsen, Gunvor. ‘Sovereignty, Mastery, and Law in the Danish West Indies, 1672–1733’. Itinerario, vol. 43, no. 2, Cambridge University Press, Aug. 2019, pp. 283–304.

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, officers of the Danish West India and Guinea Company struggled to balance the sovereignty of the company with the mastery of St. Thomas’ and St. John’s slave owners. This struggle was central to the making of the laws that controlled enslaved Africans and their descendants. Slave laws described slave crime and punishment, yet they also contained descriptions of the political entities that had the power to represent and execute the law. Succeeding governors of St. Thomas and St. John set out to align claims about state sovereignty with masters’ prerogatives, and this balancing act shaped the substance of slave law in the Danish West Indies. Indeed, the slave laws pronounced by and the legal thinking engaged in by island governors suggest that sovereignty was never a stable state of affairs in the Danish West Indies. It was always open to renegotiation as governors, with varying degrees of loyalty to the company and at times with questionable capability, strove to determine what sovereignty ought to look like in a time of slavery.

doi:10.1017/S0165115319000275.

PDF: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/itinerario/article/sovereignty-mastery-and-law-in-the-danish-west-indies-16721733/E6792A8F99E5AFE16418CF2663C6A8A0.

Simonsen, Gunvor. Slave Stories: Law, Representation, and Gender in the Danish West Indies. (2017)

Simonsen, Gunvor. Slave Stories: Law, Representation, and Gender in the Danish West Indies. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2017.

In the Danish West Indies, hundreds of enslaved men and women and a handful of Danish judges engaged in a broken, often distorted dialogue in court. Their dialogue was shaped by a shared concern with the ways slavery clashed with sexual norms and family life. Some enslaved men and women crafted respectable Christian self-portraits, which in time allowed victims of sexual abuse and rape to publicly narrate their experiences. Other slaves stressed African-Atlantic traditions when explaining their domestic conflicts. Yet these gripping stories did not influence the legal system. While the judges cunningly embraced slave testimony, they also reached guilty verdicts in most trials and punished with extreme brutality. Slaves spoke, but mostly to no avail.  In ‘Slave Stories’, Gunvor Simonsen reconstructs the narratives crafted by slaves and traces the distortions instituted by Danish West Indian legal practice. In doing so, she draws us closer to the men and women who lived in bondage in the Danish West Indies (present-day US Virgin Islands) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

https://unipress.dk/udgivelser/s/slave-stories/

Nexø, Sniff Andersen. ‘Særlige grønlandske forhold — Rum, ret og uægteskabelige børn i det koloniale Grønland’. (2013) [PDF]

Nexø, Sniff Andersen. ‘Særlige grønlandske forhold … Rum, ret og uægteskabelige børn i det koloniale Grønland’. Historisk Tidsskrift, Sept. 2013.

Making allowance for the special conditions there, the ‘legally fatherless’ appeared before the Danish public in the spring of 2010 as they formed an association aiming at securing children born out of wedlock in Greenland legal rights towards their biological father equal to the ones bestowed on Danish children. The media framed their situation as the result of the colonial system having discharged Danish men from their responsibilities towards their illegitimate children in Greenland; that is, as a token of colonial discrimination. The following year, a historical investigation was organized in order to identify differences in the legal position of children born out of wedlock in Greenland and in Denmark over the period 1914-1974. The present article, authored by one of the contributors to the report, investigates the rules concerning children born out of wedlock in Greenland at three historical moments: The earliest rules of 1782; the first modern regulation from 1914; and the first post-colonial Children’s Act from 1962. What legal and colonial differences were at stake? How may one interpret the changing regulation? The analysis draws attention to shifting problematizations of the ‘illegitimate’ children, associated with changes in the colonial context. At the same time, however, it is argued that the regulation reflects a continuous colonial rationality by which the particularities of the colonial space came to legitimize fundamental differences between colony and metropolis, and between population categories in Greenland.

PDF: https://tidsskrift.dk/historisktidsskrift/article/view/56593.

Keskinen, Suvi, Salla Tuori, Sara Irni, and Diana Mulinari, editors. Complying With Colonialism: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region. (2009)

Keskinen, Suvi, Salla Tuori, Sara Irni, and Diana Mulinari, editors. Complying With Colonialism: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region. 1st edition, Farnham, England ; Burlington, VT: Routledge, 2009

Complying with Colonialism presents a complex analysis of the habitual weak regard attributed to the colonial ties of Nordic Countries. It introduces the concept of ’colonial complicity’ to explain the diversity through which northern European countries continue to take part in (post)colonial processes. The volume combines a new perspective on the analysis of Europe and colonialism, whilst offering new insights for feminist and postcolonial studies by examining how gender equality is linked to ’European values’, thus often European superiority. With an international team of experts ranging from various disciplinary backgrounds, this volume will appeal not only to academics and scholars within postcolonial sociology, social theory, cultural studies, ethnicity, gender and feminist thought, but also cultural geographers, and those working in the fields of welfare, politics and International Relations. Policy makers and governmental researchers will also find this to be an invaluable source. 

CHAPTER 1 Introduction: Postcolonialism and the Nordic Models of Welfare and Gender Diana Mulinari, Sari Irni, Suvi Keskinen and Salla Tuori

PART I: Postcolonial Histories/Postcolonial Presents

CHAPTER 2 Colonial Complicity: The ‘Postcolonial’ in a Nordic Context Ulla Vuorela

CHAPTER 3 The Nordic Colonial Mind Mai Palmberg

CHAPTER 4 The Flipside of My Passport: Myths of Origin and Genealogy of White Supremacy in the Mediated Social Genetic Imaginary Bolette Blaagaard

CHAPTER 5 The Promise of the ‘Nordic’ and Its Reality in the South: The Experiences of Mexican Workers as Members of the ‘Volvo Family’ Diana Mulinari and Nora Räthzel

CHAPTER 6 Stranger or Family Member? Reproducing Postcolonial Power Relations Johanna Latvala

CHAPTER 7 Historical Legacies and Neo-colonial Forms of Power? A Postcolonial Reading of the Bosnian Diaspora Laura Huttunen 

PART II: Welfare State and Its ‘Others’

CHAPTER 8 When Racism Becomes Individualised: Experiences of Racialisation among Adult Adoptees and Adoptive Parents of Sweden Tobias Hübinette and Carina Tigervall

CHAPTER 9 Contradicting the ‘Prostitution Stigma’: Narratives of Russian Migrant Women Living in Norway Jana Sverdljuk

CHAPTER 10 Postcolonial and Queer Readings of ‘Migrant Families’ in the Context of Multicultural Work Salla Tuori

CHAPTER 11 “Experience is a National Asset”: A Postcolonial Reading of Ageing in the Labour Market Sari Irni

CHAPTER 12 Licorice Boys and Female Coffee Beans: Representations of Colonial Complicity in Finnish Visual Culture Leena-Maija Rossi

PART III: Doing Nation and Gender: The Civilising Mission “at Home”

CHAPTER 13 Guiding Migrants to the Realm of Gender Equality Jaana Vuori

CHAPTER 14 Institutional Nationalism and Orientalised Others in Parental Education Nanna Brink Larsen CHAPTER 15 Whose Feminism? Whose Emancipation? Chialing Yang

CHAPTER 16 “Honour”-Related Violence and Nordic Nation-Building  Suvi Keskinen.

https://www.routledge.com/Complying-With-Colonialism-Gender-Race-and-Ethnicity-in-the-Nordic-Region/Keskinen-Tuori-Irni-Mulinari/p/book/9780367603236.

Hopkins, Daniel P. ‘The Danish Ban on the Atlantic Slave Trade and Denmark’s African Colonial Ambitions, 1787–1807’. (2001)

Hopkins, Daniel P. ‘The Danish Ban on the Atlantic Slave Trade and Denmark’s African Colonial Ambitions, 1787–1807’. Itinerario, vol. 25, no. 3–4, Cambridge University Press, Nov. 2001, pp. 154–184.

On 16 March 1792, King Christian VII of Denmark, his own incompetent hand guided by that of the young Crown Prince Frederik (VI), signed decree banning both the importation of slaves into the Danish West Indies (now the United States Virgin Islands) and their export from the Danish establishments on the Guinea Coast, in what is now Ghana. To soften the blow to the planters of the Danish West Indies and to secure the continued production of sugar, the law was not to take effect for ten years. In the meantime, imports of slaves, and of women especially, would actually encouraged by state loans and favourable tariffs, so as, it was hoped, render the slave population capable of reproducing itself naturally thereafter.

doi:10.1017/S0165115300015035.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/itinerario/article/abs/danish-ban-on-the-atlantic-slave-trade-and-denmarks-african-colonial-ambitions-17871807/C940EE47F9E130847768DE9740DC8910

Spanger, Marlene, Hanne Marlene Dahl, and Elin Petersson. ‘Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance’. (2017) [PDF]

Spanger, Marlene, Hanne Marlene Dahl, and Elin Petersson. ‘Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance’. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 7, no. 4, De Gruyter Open, Dec. 2017, pp. 251–259.

In investigating global and regional care chains, scholars have traditionally adopted a sociological bottom–up approach, but more attention has recently been focussed on the role of the state. Despite this new attention to states and how they condition care chains, the existing frameworks cannot grasp the complexity of potential struggles and tensions within states and at the various state levels. In outlining a broad and tentative analytical framework for exploration of the role of the state in shaping global care chains, this theoretical article combines feminist state theory, discursive policy analysis and multi-level governance theories. Paying attention to the role of the state, we focus on the framing of policy problems that are important for care chains and on potential tensions between different framings within a state and across the different state levels. We argue that these framings should be investigated in both receiving and sending states.

https://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/rethinking-global-care-chains-through-the-perspective-of-heteroge.

PDF: 10.1515/njmr-2017-0029.

Spanger, Marlene. ‘Mellem anonymitet og synlighed. Om sorte kvinders transnationale prostitution i Danmark’. Kvinder, Køn og Forskning, vol. 10, no. 3, Foreningen for Kønsforskning, 2001, pp. 48–60.

Forestillinger om den sorte kvindes seksualitet og et særligt syn på prostitution i Danmark spiller ind på sorte kvindelige migranters prostitution. På én og samme tid bliver de anonymiseret og synliggjort.

PDF: https://tidsskrift.dk/KKF/article/view/28336

Gilliam, Laura. De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske: Identitet, ballade og muslimske fællesskaber blandt etniske minoritetsbørn. (2009)

Gilliam, Laura. De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske: Identitet, ballade og muslimske fællesskaber blandt etniske minoritetsbørn. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2009,

De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske handler om etniske minoritetsbørns identitetserfaringer i den danske folkeskole. Den viser, at de etniske minoritetsbørn – stik imod skolens og lærernes intentioner om integration – oplever, at der er et skarpt skel mellem danskere og etniske minoriteter. Børnene føler, at den danske og andre nationale identiteter er hinandens modsætninger, og at de etniske minoritetsbørn laver ballade og er dårlige elever, hvorimod danske børn opfører sig pænt og er dygtige elever. Men hvorfor bliver nationale og religiøse identiteter så vigtige i folkeskolen? Og hvorfor ender især muslimske drenge i kategorien som skolens ballademagere?  Disse spørgsmål besvarer bogen gennem en analyse af skoleinstitutionen og børns identitetsopbygning omkring fællesskaber og kulturelle former. Her bliver det tydeligt, hvordan den danske folkeskoles ideal om ‘det ordentlige menneske’ bringer begreberne om køn, nationaliteter og religion ind i samspillet mellem børn og lærere på en måde, som ikke fremmer integration.

https://unipress.dk/udgivelser/u/umulige-b%C3%B8rn-og-det-ordentlige-menneske,-de/.

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Being a Good, Relaxed or Exaggerated Muslim. Religiosity and Masculinity in the Social World of Danish Schools.’ (2014) [PDF]

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Being a Good, Relaxed or Exaggerated Muslim. Religiosity and Masculinity in the Social World of Danish Schools.’ Making European Muslims : Religious Socialization among Young Muslims in Scandinavia and Western Europe, Ed. Mark Sedgwick, New York: Routledge, 2014, 165–186.

https://pure.au.dk/portal/en/publications/being-a-good-relaxed-or-exaggerated-muslim(e57b5b46-465d-46a6-b7ce-6331d40bdff8).html

PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318239752_Being_a_good_relaxed_or_exaggerated_Muslim_Religiosity_and_masculinity_in_the_social_world_of_Danish_schools

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Ballade Og Muslimsk Rettro Som Oppositionel Kulturel Form: Etniske Minoritetsdrenges Kulturkonstruktion i Skolen’. (2007) [PDF]

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Ballade Og Muslimsk Rettro Som Oppositionel Kulturel Form: Etniske Minoritetsdrenges Kulturkonstruktion i Skolen’. Tidsskriftet Barn, vol. 25, Jan. 2007, pp. 59–76.

I den københavnske skoleklasse 4a oplever såvel etniske minoritetsbørn og etnisk danske børn at udlændinge, indvandrere og tilmed muslimer er ballademagere, og at danskere opfører sig godt og er dygtige elever. Lærerne opfatter også de etniske minoritetsdrenge i klassen som ballademagere, der tilmed går alt for meget op i religion. De forklarer drengenes adfærd som forårsaget af et problematisk kulturmøde mellem drengenes familiers hjem og den danske skole. Artiklen argumenterer i stedet for, at de etniske minoritetsdrenges ballade og religiøse rettro er kulturelle former, der langt hen ad vejen er konstrueret gennem deres erfaringer i skolen og med den magtrelation de her indgår i. At være muslimsk indvandrerdreng er blevet en oppositionel identitet, der finder sit kulturelle indhold gennem oppositionen til den danske identitet.

PDF: https://www.ntnu.no/ojs/index.php/BARN/article/view/3850.

Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten, and Dorthe Staunæs. ‘Race Matters in Intersectional Feminisms. Towards a Danish Grammar Book’. (2020)

Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten, and Dorthe Staunæs. ‘Race Matters in Intersectional Feminisms. Towards a Danish Grammar Book’. NORA – Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, vol. 28, no. 3, July 2020, pp. 224–236.

In this article, we ask: “how does race matter when working with intersectional feminism in a postcolonial Nordic context?” We take our cue from feminist and postcolonial scholars who have pointed out that minoritisation and majoritisation processes in the Nordic area are entangled in ongoing racialization processes. Working with and around the video installation Black Magic at the White House by the artist Jeanette Ehlers, we hold on to the particularities of racialization processes in the Danish context, as well as their insertion in a global racial ontology. We establish a conversation between Ehlers’ installation and the work of two black American scholars from the humanities: Sylvia Wynter and Hortense Spillers. These scholars have not been influential in the European uptake and further elaboration of intersectionality, but we argue that engaging with their work opens up a perspective that focuses on affect, absence and disappearance rather than only representation, identity and recognition, thereby worlding intersectionality differently than standpoint theory. Experience is also constituted through affective encounters, the ephemeral, forgotten and bypassed qualities and intensities. We conclude the article by drawing a preliminary sketch of elements in what we, paraphrasing Spillers, call a Danish “grammar book” of the racialized and gendered ordering of the human that again complicates the stories we may tell about how race matters and what Nordic intersectional feminism may look like, as well as the interventions this may open up.

doi:10.1080/08038740.2020.1758206.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08038740.2020.1758206.

Johnsen, Helle, Nazila Ghavami Kivi, Cecilie H. Morrison, Mette Juhl, Ulla Christensen, and Sarah F. Villadsen. ‘Addressing Ethnic Disparity in Antenatal Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of Midwives’ (2020) [PDF]

Johnsen, Helle, Nazila Ghavami Kivi, Cecilie H. Morrison, Mette Juhl, Ulla Christensen, and Sarah F. Villadsen. ‘Addressing Ethnic Disparity in Antenatal Care: A Qualitative Evaluation of Midwives’ Experiences with the MAMAACT Intervention’. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 20, no. 1, Feb. 2020, p. 118.

In Denmark, 13% of all children are born by non-Western immigrant women. The public antenatal care has not adapted to this increased diversity of women. Compared to women coming from Western countries, non-Western immigrant women have an increased prevalence of severe maternal morbidity and higher risks of maternal death, stillbirth and infant death. Suboptimal care is a contributing factor to these ethnic disparities, and thus the provision of appropriate antenatal care services is pivotal to reducing these disparities and challenges to public health. Yet, little is known about the targeted interventions which have been developed to reduce these inequities in reproductive health. The MAMAACT intervention, which included a training course for midwives, a leaflet and a mobile application, as well as additional visit time, was developed and tested at a maternity ward to increase responses to pregnancy warning signs among midwives and non-Western immigrant women. Aim: To explore the feasibility and acceptability of the MAMAACT intervention among midwives and identify factors affecting midwives’ delivery of the intervention.

doi:10.1186/s12884-020-2807-4.

PDF: https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12884-020-2807-4.pdf

Christensen, Marianne Brehm, Sarah Fredsted Villadsen, Tom Weber, Charlotte Wilken-Jensen, and Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen. ‘Higher Rate of Serious Perinatal Events in Non-Western Women in Denmark.’ (2016) [PDF]

Christensen, Marianne Brehm, Sarah Fredsted Villadsen, Tom Weber, Charlotte Wilken-Jensen, and Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen. Higher Rate of Serious Perinatal Events in Non-Western Women in Denmark. Dan Med J. 2016 Mar;63(3).

INTRODUCTION: To elucidate possible mechanisms behind the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality among migrants in Denmark, this study aimed to analyse characteristics of perinatal deaths at Hvidovre Hospital 2006-2010 ­according to maternal country of origin. METHODS: We identified children born at Hvidovre Hospital who died perinatally and included the patient files in a series of case studies. Our data were linked to data from popu­lation-covering registries in Statistics Denmark. Timing, causes of death as well as social, medical and obstetric characteristics of the parents were described according to maternal country of origin. RESULTS: This study included 125 perinatal deaths. The data indicated that intrapartum death, death caused by maternal disease, lethal malformation and preterm birth may be more frequent among non-Western than among Danishborn women. Obesity and disposition to diabetes may also be more prevalent among the non-Western women. CONCLUSIONS: The role of obesity, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and severe congenital anomalies should be a main focus in improving our understanding the increased risk of perinatal death among non-Western migrant women in Denmark. Six of 28 perinatal deaths in the non-Western group were intrapartum deaths and warrants further concern.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26931191/

PDF: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Higher-rate-of-serious-perinatal-events-in-women-in-Christensen-Villadsen/1dde871b9bf37a2989f6e50f1e6deeee5a474ac5?p2df

Jonker, Merel, and Sigtona Halrynjo. ‘Multidimensional Discrimination in Judicial Practice: A Legal Comparison between Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands’. (2014) [PDF]

Jonker, Merel, and Sigtona Halrynjo. ‘Multidimensional Discrimination in Judicial Practice: A Legal Comparison between Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands’. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 32, no. 4, SAGE Publications Ltd STM, Dec. 2014, pp. 408–433.

The concept of multidimensional discrimination is claimed to pose considerable challenges for judicial practice. The methods for tackling discrimination on more than one ground have been extensively discussed in the literature but not yet comprehensively analysed empirically. The present study compares and analyses the case law of the Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish and Danish equality bodies concerning gender-plus discrimination in the labour market. Based on 74 cases, the comparison shows that neither integrated equality bodies nor anti-discrimination legislation is a prerequisite to protect against multidimensional discrimination, and that the appointment of comparators occurs on pragmatic grounds. These findings suggest that multidimensional discrimination can be adequately dealt with in judicial practice.

doi:10.1177/016934411403200405.

PDF: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/016934411403200405