Khawaja, Iram. ‘“Det Muslimske Sofa-Hjørne”: Muslimskhed, Racialisering Og Integration’. (2015)

Khawaja, Iram. ‘“Det Muslimske Sofa-Hjørne”: Muslimskhed, Racialisering Og Integration’. Pæda­gogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, vol. 52, no. 2, 2015, pp. 29–38,

In a high-school north of Copenhagen, teachers are expressing concern in regard to the growing number of Muslim students and their way of engaging in the school context. The students are positioning themselves in a separate corner (the sofa-corner) during breaks, and policing each other in regard to religious ideals and demands thus forming an enclave in the larger network of groupings in the high school. This article analyses the concern seen from the point of view of the professional, who in many cases feel that she has no access or any tools to intervene in the forming of the sofa-grouping. The article makes visible how the concern for the proper integration is embedded in certain racialised, religious and social processes of othering, and points towards new perspectives on how it is in practice possible to work with inclusion when one takes the power relational and structural processes of exclusion and othering into consideration. 

https://pure.au.dk/portal/en/publications/det-muslimske-sofahjoerne(7288ad12-70c4-4a5a-8a82-7b2f4c64b178).html.

https://www.skolepsykologi.dk/52–%C3%A5rgang—2015 .

Ahmad, Mahvish, and Karen Waltorp. ‘Kontroversen Om Exitcirklen: Racialiseringen Af Muslimske Kvinder i Den Danske Mediedebat’. (2019) [PDF]

Ahmad, Mahvish, and Karen Waltorp. ‘Kontroversen Om Exitcirklen: Racialiseringen Af Muslimske Kvinder i Den Danske Mediedebat’. Jordens Folk, Dansk Etnografisk Forening, 2019, pp. 65–77.

Er man kendt i de danske medier som muslimsk kvinde, er der en tendens til, at man enten bliver fejret som frigjort eller opfattet som undertrykt. Vi argumenterer for, at en sådan simplistisk repræsentation i modsætningspar udelukker mere nuancerede (selv)fortællinger og kan ses som et symptom på racialiseringen af muslimer i den danske offentlighed. Vi undersøger en kontrovers om statsstøtte, hvor to samfundsdebattører, hyldet som feminister, blev anklaget for at være skabs-islamister. 

http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/103051/

PDF: https://www.academia.edu/39715541/Kontroversen_om_Exitcirklen_Racialisering_af_muslimske_kvinder_i_den_danske_mediedebat

Farkas, Johan, and Christina Neumayer. ‘“Stop Fake Hate Profiles on Facebook”: Challenges for Crowdsourced Activism on Social Media’. (2017) [PDF]

Farkas, Johan, and Christina Neumayer. ‘“Stop Fake Hate Profiles on Facebook”: Challenges for Crowdsourced Activism on Social Media’. First Monday, Sept. 2017.

This research examines how activists mobilise against fake hate profiles on Facebook. Based on six months of participant observation, this paper demonstrates how Danish Facebook users organised to combat fictitious Muslim profiles that spurred hatred against ethnic minorities. Crowdsourced action by Facebook users is insufficient as a form of sustainable resistance against fake hate profiles. A viable solution would require social media companies, such as Facebook, to take responsibility in the struggle against fake content used for political manipulation. 

doi:10.5210/fm.v22i9.8042.

https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/8042.

PDF: https://pure.itu.dk/portal/files/82174317/Manuscript_Revised_Farkas_and_Neumayer.pdf.

Buchardt, Mette. ‘Skolens produktion af muslimskhed’. (2016)

Buchardt, Mette. ‘Skolens produktion af muslimskhed’. Unge Pædagoger, vol. 2016, no. 2, Foreningen Unge Pædagoger, 2016, pp. 67–73.

Folkeskolen har jævnligt været omdrejningspunkt for panik om relationer mellem ‘dansk kultur’ og ‘muslimsk kultur’, og skolefaget Kristendomskundskab har ofte – sammen med f.eks. spiseregler og badeforhæng – været på f.eks. mediernes dagsorden.

Men hvordan tager spørgsmål om ‘religion’/‘kultur’ sig ud hvis man studerer det i klasserummet og når det faglige indhold er defineret som religion? Hvilken viden om ‘religion’ produceres? Hvilke måder at være elev på? Og hvordan indgår panikker om ‘muslimskhed’ og ‘danskhed’/‘kristenhed’ i klasserummets taler og andre praktikker?

Denne artikel kaster lys over hvordan skolen også er med til at producere forestillinger om muslimer, og giver samtidig en indføring i hvordan denne viden er produceret forskningsmæssigt: Hvordan kan man via observation og interview undersøge hvad (her) religion bliver gjort til – hvordan det særligt tager sig ud – i skolen.

https://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/skolens-produktion-af-muslimskhed

https://u-p.dk/vare/2016-nr-2/

Gilliam, Laura. De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske: Identitet, ballade og muslimske fællesskaber blandt etniske minoritetsbørn. (2009)

Gilliam, Laura. De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske: Identitet, ballade og muslimske fællesskaber blandt etniske minoritetsbørn. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2009,

De umulige børn og det ordentlige menneske handler om etniske minoritetsbørns identitetserfaringer i den danske folkeskole. Den viser, at de etniske minoritetsbørn – stik imod skolens og lærernes intentioner om integration – oplever, at der er et skarpt skel mellem danskere og etniske minoriteter. Børnene føler, at den danske og andre nationale identiteter er hinandens modsætninger, og at de etniske minoritetsbørn laver ballade og er dårlige elever, hvorimod danske børn opfører sig pænt og er dygtige elever. Men hvorfor bliver nationale og religiøse identiteter så vigtige i folkeskolen? Og hvorfor ender især muslimske drenge i kategorien som skolens ballademagere?  Disse spørgsmål besvarer bogen gennem en analyse af skoleinstitutionen og børns identitetsopbygning omkring fællesskaber og kulturelle former. Her bliver det tydeligt, hvordan den danske folkeskoles ideal om ‘det ordentlige menneske’ bringer begreberne om køn, nationaliteter og religion ind i samspillet mellem børn og lærere på en måde, som ikke fremmer integration.

https://unipress.dk/udgivelser/u/umulige-b%C3%B8rn-og-det-ordentlige-menneske,-de/.

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Being a Good, Relaxed or Exaggerated Muslim. Religiosity and Masculinity in the Social World of Danish Schools.’ (2014) [PDF]

Gilliam, Laura. ‘Being a Good, Relaxed or Exaggerated Muslim. Religiosity and Masculinity in the Social World of Danish Schools.’ Making European Muslims : Religious Socialization among Young Muslims in Scandinavia and Western Europe, Ed. Mark Sedgwick, New York: Routledge, 2014, 165–186.

https://pure.au.dk/portal/en/publications/being-a-good-relaxed-or-exaggerated-muslim(e57b5b46-465d-46a6-b7ce-6331d40bdff8).html

PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318239752_Being_a_good_relaxed_or_exaggerated_Muslim_Religiosity_and_masculinity_in_the_social_world_of_Danish_schools

Buchardt, Mette. Identitetspolitik i klasserummet: ‘Religion’ og ‘kultur’ som viden og social klassifikation. Studier i et praktiseret skolefag. (2008) [PDF]

Buchardt, Mette. Identitetspolitik i klasserummet: ‘Religion’ og ‘kultur’ som viden og social klassifikation. Studier i et praktiseret skolefag. Dissertation. University of Copenhagen, 2008.

This dissertation is a study of classroom curriculum that applies a combination of the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge. More specifically, it is a study of identity politics (in the plural) associated with ‘religion’ and ‘culture’ as they unfold in the classroom in relation to knowledge production and social classification. Categories such as ‘Muslim’ and ‘Danish’ are thus sought deconstructed in a study of the classroom as a setting for knowledge production and production of social difference. What kinds of knowledge of religion are produced? What spaces for subjects/subjectivities? What ways to be a pupil? And how does ‘Muslim-ness’ and ‘Danishness’/‘Christian-ness’ enter into in the social economy of the classroom? The classroom is thus studied as a micropolitical arena for relations and politics regarding minorities and the majority and the ways in which they figure in the social economy of the classroom.   

The data material of the project is based on my observations of two delimited educational modules in the primary school subject Kristendomskundskab (literally: Knowledge about Christianity) at two different schools located in the same Copenhagen neighborhood. Both educational modules deal with several religions, particularly Christianity and Islam. The material consists of sound recordings of classroom speech, by systematic registrations focusing on turn-taking, by interviews with teachers and pupils and finally a questionnaire for the parents concerning information of a socioeconomic nature.   

The project’s perspective on the classroom is inspired by Basil Bernstein’s concepts of recontextualizing and pedagogic discourse as a way to conceptualize and study forms of knowledge as well as how they are reshaped and produced in school on the terms of the logic of the pedagogic field of practice. This Bernsteinian perspective on the educational system and curriculum makes up the overall framework of the dissertation in which I employ two parallel analytical strategies, i.e. one drawing on the concept of discursive regularity (Michel Foucault) – allowing me to analyze the production of the educational content – and the concepts of social space and field (Pierre Bourdieu), enabling me to analyze the ways in which agents are produced in the social economy of the classroom. The study of discursive regularity in relation to the formation of knowledge and subjects is concretized by the discourse analytical framework of sociolinguist Norman Fairclough through studies of linguistic practice, namely classroom conversation, while the Bourdieuian key concepts are concretized through studies of turn-taking practices and the categorization and acknowledgment practices of the teachers.   

 The dissertation links the study of the classroom as knowledge and subject production to a conception of societal ‘classes’ as production of social classification – practices of acknowledgment and non-acknowledgement that function in conjunction with possession of economic capital and capitals related to cultural education [Bildung]. The point is that ‘religion’/‘culture’ may be understood as clusters of knowledge, but also as subject-producing technologies coloring and forming bodies. Moreover, these knowledge clusters are simultaneously tinted by the social economy associated with the bodies of the agents as they are being transformed and produced in the social economy of the classroom.   

When the categorical cluster ‘religion’/‘culture’ is discussed from a perspective of social classification, it may be understood as something that does more than merely interact with social classification. These subject-generating knowledge clusters – themselves populated by subjects – related to ‘religion’/‘culture’ in the classroom curriculum constitute a productive and potent part of the social classification. In light of the concept of capitals, they are thus bound up with and have consequences for social distribution. Categories such as ‘Muslim’ and ‘Danish’/‘Christian’ are in themselves to be understood as a process of social classification and distribution. Thus, ‘religion’ may be understood as a class-producing practice having a vital institutional life in something that should not be perceived as a religious institution in the formal sense, but rather as a state institution and as such embedded in societal structuring.

PDF: https://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/identitetspolitik-i-klasserummet-religion-og-kultur-som-viden-og-.

Hervik, Peter. The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict. (2012) [PDF]

Hervik, Peter. The Danish Muhammad Cartoon Conflict. Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM), 2012.

The “Muhammad crisis,” the “Muhammad Cartoon Crisis,” or “The  Jyllands-Posten Crisis” are three different headings used for the global,  violent reactions that broke out in early 2006. The cartoon crisis was  triggered by the publication of 12 cartoons in the largest Danish daily  newspaper Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005 and  the Danish governments refusal to meet with 11 concerned ambassadors.  However, Jyllands-Posten’s record on covering Islam; the  ever growing restrictive identity politics and migration policies and  the popular association of Islam with terrorism made it predictable  that something drastic would eventually happen, although neither the  form of the counter-reaction or the stubborn anti-Islamic forces were  unknown. This collection of chapters seeks to fill out some of the most  glaring holes in the media coverage and academic treatment of the  Muhammad cartoon story. It will do so by situating the conflict more  firmly in its proper socio-historical context by drawing on the author’s  basic research on the Danish news media’s coverage of ethnic and  religious minorities since the mid 1990s. The author uses thick contextualization  to analyze this very current theme in IMER studies, which  has consequences for most immigrants of non-Western countries to the  Nordic countries.

PDF: http://muep.mau.se/handle/2043/14094

Hjarvard, Stig. ‘Mediatization and the Changing Authority of Religion’ (2016) [PDF]

Hjarvard, Stig. ‘Mediatization and the Changing Authority of Religion’. Media, Culture & Society, vol. 38, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 8–17.

Introduction

Religion has become more publicly visible over the past decades in several parts of the world, including the predominantly secular Nordic countries, and has acquired a continuous presence on various political and cultural agendas. The increased visibility is not least due to the presence of religion in the media, including news media, entertainment media, and social network media. For some scholars of religion, the growing public visibility has been used to claim a resurgence of religious belief in general and to denounce the idea of secularization in particular. Peter Berger (1999), himself once a proponent of secularization theory, has stated that the world is ‘as furiously religious as it ever was, and in some places more so than ever. This means that a whole body of literature by historians and social scientists loosely labeled “secularization theory” is essentially mistaken’ (p. 2).

In this article, I will pursue a more cautious line of reasoning and address the role of media in the growing visibility of religion. In short, I will argue that the visibility of religion is in part a reflection of a general mediatization of religion through which religious beliefs, agency, and symbols are becoming influenced by the workings of various media. There are, of course, many other and in some respects more important reasons for the increased presence of religion in modern societies, such as global migration, politicization of religious organizations, and the international war on terror. But the presence of religion in the media is not just a mirror of a religious reality ‘outside’ the media. It is also an outcome of a complex set of processes in which the importance of religion and particular religious beliefs and actions are contested as well as reasserted, both in and by the media, at the same time as religion undergoes transformation through the very process of being mediated through various media. I will focus my attention on the question of to what extent and in what ways religious authority may undergo transformation in view of the general process of mediatization. The argument will rest primarily on research conducted in the Nordic countries (Hjarvard and Lövheim, 2012), in which the Protestant Lutheran church has historically occupied a dominant position and in which a wider range of religions have become visible in more recent times, not least Islam. Since my discussion of a changing religious authority is closely linked to the theoretical framework of mediatization, I will briefly introduce the main tenets of mediatization theory and the general characteristics of the mediatization of religion. This outline of the mediatization of religion will also serve as a reference for contributions by Knut Lundby, Mia Lövheim, and Günter Thomas in this issue of Media, Culture & Society.

doi:10.1177/0163443715615412.

PDF: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0163443715615412.

Hussain, Mustafa. ‘Islam, Media and Minorities in Denmark’. (2000) [PDF]

Hussain, Mustafa. ‘Islam, Media and Minorities in Denmark’. Current Sociology, vol. 48, no. 4, SAGE Publications Ltd, Oct. 2000, pp. 95–116.

This article examines the contribution of Denmark’s news media to the formation of intolerant opinions about ethnic minorities. Based on an empirical investigation using discourse analysis and a narrative approach to the contents of the daily news flow on ethnic affairs in the dominant news media, the article argues that the media have played an important role in the (re)production of a prejudiced discourse on ethnic minorities. In this discursive process, Muslim minorities have been the primary victims. In the absence of social interaction between the majority population and minority groups, the cognitive frame of reference through which members of the ethnic majority premise their arguments is largely based on mental models of ethnic events that are constituted by media-mediated themes and topics on minority issues in the daily news flow of the national media.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0011392100048004008

PDF: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0011392100048004008

Jensen, Dr Tina Gudrun. ‘To Be “Danish”, Becoming “Muslim”: Contestations of National Identity?’ (2008)

Jensen, Dr Tina Gudrun. ‘To Be “Danish”, Becoming “Muslim”: Contestations of National Identity?’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 3, Routledge, Apr. 2008, pp. 389–409.

This article discusses the relationship between national, ethnic and religious identities as embodied by so-called ethnic Danes who convert to Islam. The point of departure is the constructed polarisation between Islam and the West. The article explores how converts experience their apparently contradictory identities as ‘Danish’ and ‘Muslim’. Identity is dealt with as processes of both difference and similarity, whereby the constructions of ‘self’ as ‘same’ and ‘other’ as ‘different’ are questioned. In exploring the space between ‘self’ and ‘other’ among Danish converts, it is argued that they negotiate their identities as both Danish and Muslims by engaging in an ideological struggle over otherwise commonsense meanings. This process opens a space for re-making identity by connecting relations between these identities, which are otherwise perceived as having nothing in common.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830701880210.

Jul Jacobsen, Sara, Tina Gudrun Jensen, Kathrine Vitus, and Kristina Weibel. Analysis of Danish Media Setting and Framing of Muslims, Islam and Racism. (2013) [PDF]

Jul Jacobsen, Sara, Tina Gudrun Jensen, Kathrine Vitus, and Kristina Weibel. Analysis of Danish Media Setting and Framing of Muslims, Islam and Racism. København: The Danish National Centre for Social Research, 2013.

This paper presents the results of two case studies exploring the role which the Danish newspaper Media play in the reproduction of racial and ethnic inequalities. One case study analyses representations of Muslims and Islam in Danish newspapers, the other the presence and absence of discussions about racism and discrimination of ethnic minorities in Denmark. The analyses are based on, respectively, a two-month and a two-week monitoring of four Danish newspapers between mid-October and mid-December 2011. A relatively large share of the news stories dealing with Muslims and Islam was negatively framed and restricted to certain topics such as extremism, terror and sharia, whereas positive actions and critical topics like racism and discrimination against Muslims were more or less nonexistent in the Media coverage. Constructed through an antagonistic and hierarchical relationship between ‘Danes’ and ‘Muslims’, Muslim culture and Islam tended to be represented as a threat to Danish society and so-called Danish values. The reporting was rather one-sided and exclusive of minority voices, and when Muslims were given voice, the same few publicly visible and vocal actors appeared. At the same time, the lives and opinions of the less visible majority of Muslims more or less vanished in the Media coverage. In this way, the newspapers constructed a distorted and negative picture of Muslims and their religion, and thereby contributed to a general climate of intolerance and discrimination against Muslim minorities.

PDF: https://pure.vive.dk/ws/files/224036/WP_10_2013.pdf.

Khawaja, Iram. To belong everywhere and nowhere: fortællinger om muslimskhed, fællesgørelse og belonging. (2010) [PDF]

Khawaja, Iram. To belong everywhere and nowhere: fortællinger om muslimskhed, fællesgørelse og belonging. Roskilde: Dissertation. Roskilde Universitet, 2010.

Denne afhandling tager udgangspunkt i en interesse i at udforske spørgsmåletom, hvordandet er muligt at blive til som et ungtmuslimsk subjekti religiøse fællesskaber  i  København.  Dette  spørgsmål  undersøges  på  grundlag  af  en ambition  om  at lade  de  unges  egne stemmer  og fortællinger  komme  i forgrunden  i  forhold  til  de ofte  stereotypiserende  og  andetgørende  images, dereksisterer ommuslimer.Det gælder særligt unge muslimer, der tager del i religiøse    fællesskaber,    hvilket    fordrer    en    nærmere    undersøgelse    af betydningen  af  fællesskab.Det  sammenholdes  med  etfokus  på  belonging. Afhandlingen er på således bygget op om en multiaksial opmærksomhed  på, fælleshed, belonging og muslimskhedudfra en todelt interesse i: 1.Empirisk  udforskning  af  unge  muslimers  levede  liv  i  forhold  til  et fokus  på,  hvordan  de  positionerer  sig  i  forskellige  fællesgørende konteksterog  i  denne  sammenhæng  fortæller  sig  selv  frem  som muslimske subjekter.2.Teoretisk-begrebslig  udvikling,  der  kan  rykke  ved  og  tilbyde  nye måder at konceptualisere muslimskhed, fælleshed og belonging.  Det multiaksiale udgangspunkt og dets forskellige afgrænsninger ekspliciteres i kapitel 1. Afhandlingen  er  grundet  i  en poststrukturalistisk  og  socialkonstruktionistisk informeret  optik,  der  sammenlæser  et  foucauldiansk  og  deleuziansk perspektiv  medkonkrete  begreber  somf.eks.  kontekst,  fælleshed  og positionering.De metateoretiske og begrebslige aspekter ekspliciteres i kapitel 2, men der arbejdes videre med dem i afhandlingens analytiske læsninger.Det empiriske omdrejningspunkt for afhandlingen, som beskrives i kapitel 3, erbaseret  på deltagerobservationer  i  udvalgte  religiøse  foreninger  og fællesheder i København, samt kvalitative interviews af unge muslimer, med forskellige  kønnede,  etniske  og  racialetilhørsforhold. De  analysestrategiske greb  gøres  synlige  i  kapitel  4,  og  det  bliver  her  tydeligt,at  analysen struktureres om forskellige destabiliserende læsninger.  Afhandlingens  analyse  ersåledes  bygget  op  om som  et  rhizommed forskellige  akser  og  læsninger, som  er delt  op  i  tre  centralekapitler,  der  340henholdsvis  gør  fælleshed(kap.  5),  subjektiveringsbevægelser (kap.  6) og belonging(kap.7)til forgrund. Kapitlerne  er  vævet  sammen  af  forskellige  teoretisk-begrebslige  bevægelser, og  det  er  således  muligt  at  se  multiple  sammenhængende  overskridende bevægelser fra et klassisk fællesskabsbegreb til konceptet om fællesgørelse, fra intersektionalitet til transsektionalitet samt bevægelsen fra positionering til et translokalt  og  kropsligt  perspektiv  på  belonging.  Disse  bevægelser  udføres bl.a. på    grundlag    af    dynamiske    sammenlæsninger    af    feministiske, postkoloniale  og  poststrukturalistiske  perspektiver  på  kropslighed,  desire, translokalitet og diaspora, og kan mere generelt relateres til en metateoretisk bevægelse fra en konstruktionistisk til en post-konstruktionistisk optik.    De begrebslige  overskridelser  er forbundet  med  de  empirisk  fokuserede analytiske læsninger,  som peger på  en  forståelse  af muslimskhed som en flerstrenget proces, der bl.a. er flettet sammen af:

·Multisituerede    fællesgørende    bevægelser:    De    unge    muslimer konstruerer fælleshed på forskellige måder og anvender muslimskhed som central akse i konstruktionen af en ”naturlig” fælleshed  om  at være  muslimske  andre.  Ofte  er  fællesheden  om  at  være  muslimske andre forbundet med en etnisk andetgørende fælleshed. Fællesgørelse konstrueres    i    denne    sammenhæng    igennem    subjektiverende bevægelser og en desire for belonging og genkendelse. ·Intersektionelle og transsektionelle subjektiveringsbevægelser, der går i retning af en selvfremstilling som passende og intelligibelt religiøst andet  subjekt,  men  som  ofte  sammenlæser  etnisk  andethed  med religøs  andethed.  Det  er  forbundet  med  forskellige  muligheder  for kropsligt  at  forhandle  sin  synlige/ikke-synlige  muslimskhed  og andethed i forhold til forskelligedisciplinerende blikke. ·Diasporiske  konstruktioner  af  hjem  og  belonging,  der  fører  til  nye nye  måder at  forhandledistinktionerne  mellem  hjemland,  hjem  og belonging. Bestemte  lokationer,  subjektpositioner  og  kategorier investeres med hjemliggørende desires. Hjem er følgelig ikke et sted men en desire for belonging.Muslimskhed  konceptualiseres  således  som  en  decentraliseret  bevægelse,  der er  flettet  sammen  af  de  unges  forskellige  gørelser af  fælleshed,  belonging  og subjektivering.Præmisserne forudviklingen og fremskrivningen af disse teoretisk-analytiske og empirisk-analytiske læsningereksploreres i kapitel 8, hvor der sættesfokus på  forskerpositionering.  Forskerpositionering  diskuteres  som  konkrete  341positioneringsmuligheder  som  kvindeligt  og  etnisk  kropsmarkeret  religiøs andet forskerubjekt i et politiseretforskningsfelt.  De midlertidige analytiske lukninger opsummeres i kapitel 9, hvor der samles op på centrale teoretisk-begrebslige og empiriske snit fra de unges levede liv.  Det bliver i denne forbindelse tydeligt, at afhandlingen tilbyder et rhizomatisk perspektiv  på muslimskhed som  en decentraliseret  bevægelse,som er forbundet  med  og  defineret  af  deunges  forskellige  gørelser  af  fælleshed, belonging  og  subjektivering.  Det  kommer bl.a.  kommer  til  udtryk  i  nye  og transsektionelle  betydningskonstellationer  som  f.eks.  konstruktioner  af  en ”dansk  muslimskhed”,  en  kosmopolitisk  hjemliggørelse  af  verden,  og konstruktionen af muslimskhed som translokalt hjemog multirettet desire.

https://forskning.ruc.dk/da/publications/to-belong-everywhere-and-nowhere-fort%C3%A6llinger-om-muslimskhed-f%C3%A6ll

PDF: https://www.academia.edu/31322749/To_belong_everywhere_and_nowhere_fort%C3%A6llinger_om_muslimskhed_f%C3%A6llesskab_og_belonging.

Khawaja, Iram. ‘Radikalisering i Skolen?: Fra Etnicitet Og Køn Til Muslimskhed, Fælleshed Og Belonging’. (2018)

Khawaja, Iram. ‘Radikalisering i Skolen?: Fra Etnicitet Og Køn Til Muslimskhed, Fælleshed Og Belonging’. Pæda­gogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, no. 5, 2018, pp. 105–116.

Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i en case om en 14 årig skolepige som tilsyneladende bevæger sig i en religiøs radikaliseret retning. Casen anvendes til at tage fat i aktuelle teoretiske diskussioner om etnicitet, andethed, køn og belonging, og fokuserer på hvordan det som praktiker er muligt analysere problemstillingen med øje for den kompleksitet processer som radikalisering er indlejret i. Der argumenteres i denne forbindelse for en dynamisk og processuel forståelse af etnicitet og kultur, der i stedet for at se på kulturel eller religiøs andethed som definerende for den enkeltes adfærd ser på den enkeltes flerrettede positioneringer og søgen efter tilhørsforhold som væsentlige faktorer.

https://www.kiibee.dk/paedagogisk-psykologisk-tidsskrift/paedagogisk-psykologisk-tidsskrift-2018/ppt-nr-5-2018-radikalisering-i-skolen-fra-etnicitet-og-koen-til-muslimskhed-faelleshed-og-belonging-af-ram-khawaja/

Galal, Lise Paulsen, Monique Hocke, and Iram Khawaja. ‘Introduktion: Muslim og minoritet’. (2010) [PDF]

Galal, Lise Paulsen, Monique Hocke, and Iram Khawaja. ‘Introduktion: Muslim og minoritet’. Tidsskrift for Islamforskning, vol. 4, no. 2, 2, Sept. 2010, pp. 3–6.

Forholdet mellem det ’at være muslim’ og det ’at være en minoritet’ har blandt muslimer været et emne til debat, siden profeten Muhammed udvandrede eller flygtede fra Mekka til Medina for dér at leve i eksil i 8 år. I dag kan man blandt andet på arabiske islamiske satellit-kanaler følge med i, hvordan denne debat er blevet en del af muslimers hverdagspraksis i Europa, hvor de forsøger at finde svar på, hvordan de skal leve som muslimer i samfund, hvor islam ikke er majoritetsreligionen.At muslimer i Europa er en minoritet, er en commonsense betragtning, der florerer i den offentlige debat, i hverdagssproget, såvel som i forskningen på feltet. Ganske ofte tages denne betragtning af muslimers status for givet, uden at det udforskes nærmere, hvilke præmisser der ligger bag denne kategorisering, og hvad konsekvenserne er. For at komme nærmere en forståelse af sammenhængen mellem ’det at være muslim’ og at være ’en minoritet’, er det nødvendigt at udfordre denne commonsense forståelse af muslimer som værende en minoritet. Hvad menes der med, at de er en minoritet? Muslim er betegnelsen for en religiøs identitet, men hvad får det af betydning for det religiøse tilhørsforhold, den enkeltes hverdagslige tilværelse og selvforståelse, at muslimer betegnes som værende en minoritet? Er det overhovedet religionen, der er afgørende for deres minoritetsidentitet, og hvordan spiller den religiøse og den minoriserede kategorisering sammen? Set i forhold til majoritetens rolle må man blandt andet spørge, hvordan kategoriseringen af muslimer som værende en minoritet får betydning for lovgivning og institutionelle praksisser. Der er således rigtig mange aspekter af dette tema, som kunne være relevante at belyse. Dette temanummer belyser nogle udvalgte aspekter af dette omfattende emne om den religiøse og minoriserede identitet. Disse aspekter afspejler til dels den forskning, der aktuelt dominerer i det danske forskningsfelt, og er til dels influeret af politiske interesser for integration, antiradikalisering, muslimsk identitet etc. Ambitionen er en tværfaglig vinkling på konstruktioner af muslimske minoritetsidentiteter med en særlig opmærksomhed på samspillet mellem den religiøst definerede og den status- eller magt-definerede identitet, som minoritetsbegrebet refererer til. Temanummeret tager således udgangspunkt i en definition af minoriteter som en analytisk kategori, hvor minoriteten er defineret ved en asymmetrisk magtrelation til majoriteten. Det er dermed ikke det numeriske mindretal, der i sig selv gør muslimer til en minoritet, men tilskrivningen af betydning til gruppen af muslimer og dens størrelse i relationen til en majoritet. Denne – magtrelationelle – betydningstilskrivning tildeler minoriteten en anderledes, afvigende eller negativ identitet, der fratager minoriteten samfundsmæssig status og definitionsmagt. Hvilke forskelle i form af afvigelser fra normen, der konkret tillægges betydning, kan samtidig variere over tid og sted og være udgangspunkt for forhandlinger og kampe, som det tydeligt vil fremgå af dette temanummers artikler.

doi:10.7146/tifo.v4i2.24592.

PDF: https://tifoislam.dk/article/view/24592.

Khawaja, Iram, and Line Lerche Mørck. ‘Researcher Positioning: Muslim “Otherness” and Beyond’. (2009)

Khawaja, Iram, and Line Lerche Mørck. ‘Researcher Positioning: Muslim “Otherness” and Beyond’. Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 6, no. 1–2, Routledge, June 2009, pp. 28–45.

This article focuses on the complex and multilayered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and “othered” groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious, and racial backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised 1 or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one’s positioning as a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other calls for close reflections on one’s own position, theoretically, personally, and politically, taking into account one’s complicity in either overcoming or reproducing processes of othering and marginalisation. 1We use the term (ethnic) minoritised not as a distinction with numerical proportions but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix 2001, p. 128).

doi:10.1080/14780880902900713.

Lenneis, Verena, and Sine Agergaard. ‘Enacting and Resisting the Politics of Belonging through Leisure. The Debate about Gender-Segregated Swimming Sessions Targeting Muslim Women in Denmark’. (2018)

Lenneis, Verena, and Sine Agergaard. ‘Enacting and Resisting the Politics of Belonging through Leisure. The Debate about Gender-Segregated Swimming Sessions Targeting Muslim Women in Denmark’. Leisure Studies, vol. 37, no. 6, Routledge, Nov. 2018, pp. 706–720.

In 2016 women-only swimming sessions targeting Muslims made the headlines in the Danish media, precipitating great discussion about whether such sessions contributed to or impeded social integration. This article focuses on the debate in the city council of Aarhus concerning women-only swimming activities that had existed for 10 years and had been well attended. Yet, after a year of discussion, the city council voted for a municipality-wide ban on women-only swimming during public opening hours. The popularity and longevity of the sessions pose the question: Why and how has women-only swimming become a ‘problem’, in other words a leisure time physical activity that challenges current discourses on immigration and integration? The debate on women-only swimming is an interesting case to study as it testifies not only to an increasing focus on the civic integration of ethnic minorities, including their leisure practices, but also to strong resistance by the general public and the women affected. Drawing on a postcolonial feminist perspective, our analysis shows how perceptions of Danishness, gender equality and non-religious leisure become central arguments in the debate, pointing to various ways in which understandings of gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion and nation intersect in the current restrictive politics of belonging.

doi:10.1080/02614367.2018.1497682.

https://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/enacting-and-resisting-the-politics-of-belonging-through-leisure-.

Lövheim, Mia, Haakon H. Jernsletten, David Herbert, Knut Lundby, and Stig Hjarvard. ‘Attitudes: Tendencies and Variations’. (2018) [PDF]

Lövheim, Mia, Haakon H. Jernsletten, David Herbert, Knut Lundby, and Stig Hjarvard. ‘Chapter 2 Attitudes: Tendencies and Variations’. Contesting ReligionThe Media Dynamics of Cultural Conflicts in Scandinavia, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2018. DeGruyter,

This chapter presents an overview of religiosity and attitudes to religious diversity in media and other public spaces based on a cross-Scandinavian survey conducted in 2015. Although Scandinavians in general have a weak personal connection to religion, Christianity still holds a privileged position as an expression of cultural identity. Scandinavians express support for equal rights to practice religion, but also doubtfulness towards public expressions of religion. More than one-fourth of respondents discuss news about religion and religious extremism regularly. There is a widespread sentiment that Islam is a threat to the national culture, even though most respondents state that they oppose an open expression of hostile attitudes towards foreigners. Political orientation and gender are salient aspects that shape diverging opinions regarding tolerance or scepticism towards the public visibility of religious diversity. Furthermore, Danes and Norwegians are more critical of public expressions of Islam than Swedes.

doi:10.1515/9783110502060-007.

PDF: https://www.degruyter.com/view/books/9783110502060/9783110502060-007/9783110502060-007.xml.

Lundby, Knut, Stig Hjarvard, Mia Lövheim, and Haakon H. Jernsletten. ‘Religion between Politics and Media: Conflicting Attitudes towards Islam in Scandinavia’. (2018) [PDF]

Lundby, Knut, Stig Hjarvard, Mia Lövheim, and Haakon H. Jernsletten. ‘Religion between Politics and Media: Conflicting Attitudes towards Islam in Scandinavia’. Journal of Religion in Europe, vol. 10, no. 4, Nov. 2017, pp. 437–456.

Based on a comparative project on media and religion across Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, this article analyzes relationships between religiosity and political attitudes in Scandinavia and how these connect with attitudes regarding the representation of Islam in various media. Data comes from population-wide surveys conducted in the three countries in April 2015. Most Scandinavians relate ‘religion’ with conflict, and half of the population perceives Islam as a threat to their national culture. Scandinavians thus perceive religion in terms of political tensions and predominantly feel that news media should serve a critical function towards Islam and religious conflicts. Finally, the results of the empirical analysis are discussed in view of the intertwined processes of politicization of Islam and mediatization of religion.

doi:10.1163/18748929-01004005.

PDF: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/18748929-01004005.

Nielsen, Jorgen, editor. Islam in Denmark: The Challenge of Diversity. (2011)

Nielsen, Jørgen, editor. Islam in Denmark: The Challenge of Diversity. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2011.

Little has been published in English about Islam in Denmark although interest grew after the cartoons crisis of 2005-6. Danish research on the subject is extensive, and this volume aims to present some of the most recent to an international audience. While many of the circumstances which apply across western Europe — the history of immigration and refugees, settlement, the growth of Muslim organizations and international links, challenges of social and cultural encounter, and more recently Islam as a security issue — also apply in Denmark, there are also differences. A small, compact country with no recent imperial history, Denmark’s unified institutional, religious and social culture can make it difficult for newcomers to integrate. The fourteen chapters in this book cover the topic in three parts. The first part deals with the history and statistics of immigration and settlement, and the religious institutional responses, Christian and Muslim. Part two looks at specific issues and the interaction with the developing national debate about identity and minority. Finally part three presents the experience of four active participants in the processes of integration: youth work and hospital chaplaincy, interreligious dialogue, and the views of an imam.

Chapter 1: Setting the Scene (Jørgen S. Nielsen)
Part One: National Perspectives
Chapter 2: Denmark, Islam and Muslims – Socio-Economic Dynamics and the Art of Becoming (Jørgen Bæk Simonsen)
Chapter 3: Muslims in Denmark – a Critical Evaluation of Estimation (Brian Arly Jacobsen)
Chapter 4: Religion and State: Recognition of Islam and Related Legislation (Lisbet Christoffersen)
Chapter 5: Mosques and Organizations (Lene Kühle)
Part Two: Particular Perspectives
Chapter 6: Nørrebro and ”Muslimness”: A Neighborhood Caught Between National Mythscapes and Local Engagement (Garbi Schmidt)
Chapter 7: How Did ‘the Muslim Pupil’ Become Muslim? Danish State Schooling and ‘the Migrant Pupils’ since the 1970s (Mette Buchardt)
Chapter 8: Gender as a Tool in Danish Debates about Muslims (Rikke Andreassen)
Chapter 9: Conversion to Islam in Denmark (Tina Jensen and Kate Østergaard)
Chapter 10: Muslims as a Danish Security Issue (Mona Kanwal Sheikh and Manni Crone)
Part Three: Perspectives on the Ground
Chapter 11: ‘To be Something’ – the Role of Religion in the Formation of Protest Identity among Ethnic Minority Youth (Lissi Rasmussen)
Chapter 12: Counseling in the Health Service (Naveed Baig)
Chapter 13: Interreligious Relations (Safet Bektovic)
Chapter 14: Towards a European Understanding of Islam (Abdul Wahid Pedersen)

https://rowman.com/isbn/0739170139

Pedersen, Linda Lund. ‘Kønsforskel Og Neutralitet – Danske Tørklædedebatter Set Gennem Luce Irigarays Teori om Kønsforskel Og Den Anden’. (2008) [PDF]

Pedersen, Linda Lund. ‘Kønsforskel Og Neutralitet – Danske Tørklædedebatter Set Gennem Luce Irigarays Teoriom Kønsforskel Og Den Anden’. Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no. 4, 4, Dec. 2008.

This article adopts a philosophical approach to Danish media and parliamentary debates on Muslim headscarves. Through the use of Luce Irigaray’s theories on sexual difference it suggests a new perspective. It argues that the debates have generally failed to recognize the other (i.e. the Muslim veiled woman) as the other. Ultimately this is due to dominant (white, Christian) culture being unable to accept and understand difference – in particular sexual difference as its foundation. In the meeting with the other, the other is reduced to the same.

doi:10.7146/kkf.v0i4.27944.

PDF: https://tidsskrift.dk/KKF/article/view/27944.      

Riis, Ole. ‘Rejection of Religious Pluralism — the Danish Case’. (2011)

Riis, Ole. ‘Rejection of Religious Pluralism — the Danish Case’. Nordic Journal of Religion & Society, vol. 24, no. 1, May 2011, pp. 19–36.

In Denmark, religion has for generations been a non-issue in public debates. However, as Islam has become the second largest religion over just one generation, religion has become a public issue (Hunter 2002). The rise of Islam is mostly due to immigration, and religious pluralism is therefore associated with integration (European Parliament 2007). Central opinion makers and politicians have reacted to the new challenge of religious pluralism by either trying to exclude religion from the public sphere or by proposing to insulate and expel religions which do not fit into the established model. Islamic identities have thus become suspect as spokespersons for the Danish majority either adhere to a policy of secularism or to a civil religious reference to the Denmark’s Christian heritage. This article presents the major cleavages in the Danish debates about religious pluralism. The study is based on Danish material, such as articles in newspapers, public reports, and web-site discussions.

https://www.idunn.no/nordic_journal_of_religion_and_society/2011/01/rejection_of_religious_pluralism_the_danish_case

PDF: https://www.idunn.no/file/ci/66929884/Rejection_Of_Religious_Pluralism_The_Danish_Case.pdf

Rytter, Mikkel, and Marianne Holm Pedersen. ‘A Decade of Suspicion: Islam and Muslims in Denmark after 9/11’. (2014)

Rytter, Mikkel, and Marianne Holm Pedersen. ‘A Decade of Suspicion: Islam and Muslims in Denmark after 9/11’. Ethnic & Racial Studies, vol. 37, no. 13, Dec. 2014, pp. 2303–2321.

In 2011, al-Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden, was killed in Pakistan and the US president, Barack Obama, concluded a decade of global ‘war against terror’. In light of this, it seems only sensible to explore what implications the post-9/11 international developments have had on a local basis in specific national contexts. With this in mind, this article focuses on Denmark and discusses how the critical event of 9/11 motivated a security/integration response, including various pre-emptive measures that have cast the Muslim population as the usual suspects. It will discuss how these changes have affected the everyday lives of ordinary Danish Muslims over the last ten years and changed the relationship between majorities and minorities. Finally, it will also examine how and why recent national and international events have created the potential for another shift in majority–minority relations.

doi:10.1080/01419870.2013.821148.