Diallo, Oda-Kange. “At the Margins of Institutional Whiteness:: Black Women in Danish Academia.” (2019) [PDF]

Diallo, Oda-Kange. “At the Margins of Institutional Whiteness:: Black Women in Danish Academia.” To Exist Is to Resist: Black Feminism in Europe, edited by Akwugo Emejulu and Francesca Sobande, 2019, pp. 219–28. ResearchGate, https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvg8p6cc.20.

From introduction:

This study builds on four months of ethnographic fieldwork among a culturally, ethnically,
linguistically and nationally diverse group of Black women in Copenhagen, in which the majority were born or grew up in Denmark, and a few moved there later in life. What they share are their ‘African’ looks and roots, as well as being cis-women, with either Danish citizenship or residence permit. During the time of the fieldwork they were all part of an academic institution (as students or faculty). The women were recruited via a Facebook post encouraging women of African descent who were interested
in discussing issues of race, gender and identity in Denmark to contact me. Through the four months of data collection I have had extensive conversations with the women over coffee, while hanging out at hair salons, during semi-structured interviews and focus groups, and during breaks between lectures and lab work in their respective university environments.
What I learned first and foremost is that because race and especially Blackness is an issue which is rarely discussed in Denmark, within and outside academia, the participants were relieved that they were finally able to voice their experiences in the company of other Black women. With a methodological starting point in Black Feminist Thought, and an analytical foundation in critical race theory, I will explore how these women’s experiences are shaped by hidden colonial processes which influence the fabric of their Blackness.
As a mixed-race Black woman and academic, myself, I am part of the studied group, and
continuously work to understand the intersections of race and gender within myself and among other Black women in Denmark.

PDF: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333221717_At_the_Margins_of_Institutional_Whiteness_Black_Women_in_Danish_Academia

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘The Democratic Consequences of Anti-Immigrant Political Rhetoric: A Mixed Methods Study of Immigrants’ Political Belonging’. (2019) [PDF]

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘The Democratic Consequences of Anti-Immigrant Political Rhetoric: A Mixed Methods Study of Immigrants’ Political Belonging’. Political Behavior, May 2019.

Anti-immigrant political rhetoric is proliferating in Europe, inspiring research to examine the potential effects on public opinion. However, studies of the reactions of first- and second-generation immigrants—the objects of this rhetoric—remain scarce. This article argues that political rhetoric should be treated as a context of integration affecting political outcomes, in particular political belonging. To that end, the article combines qualitative evidence from focus group discussions conducted in Denmark, a high-salience context, and quantitative evidence from cross-national survey and party manifesto data from 18 Western European countries over a 12-year period. In addition to demonstrating a negative mean effect, the analyses show that those most in focus of contemporary political messages (Muslims and immigrants with shorter educations) are most affected, suggesting a sophisticated processing of political rhetoric. In contrast, traditional explanations concerning structural incorporation, generational integration, and exposure to rhetoric are not supported. The article discusses the implications of the results for democratic inclusion in contemporary Europe.


PDF: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-019-09549-6.

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘Politics Feeds Back: The Minority/Majority Turnout Gap and Citizenship in Anti-Immigrant Times’. (2020)

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘Politics Feeds Back: The Minority/Majority Turnout Gap and Citizenship in Anti-Immigrant Times’. Perspectives on Politics, Cambridge University Press, 2020, pp. 1–16.

Voting is a democratic virtue and an important mechanism for citizens to let their voices be heard. However, citizens do not participate in politics at equal levels, with consequences for their political power. While turnout gaps between different socioeconomic groups are well researched, the biggest gap in many Western European countries today has been overlooked: that between the children of immigrants (minority youths) and the majority population. I argue that existing theories fall short in addressing this gap because they do not attend to the distinctly political forces that shape citizens’ relationships to politics. Building on the policy-feedback literature, and analyzing seventy-one in-depth interviews with minority and majority youths in Denmark, I show that because these groups are targeted very differently in policy and political discourse, they have substantially different conceptions of politics and their status as citizens. Many minority youths react to anti-immigrant political messages by dissociating from politics, but I warn against interpreting their quiescence as political apathy. Instead, dissociating from politics can be a strategy to reclaim power over their self-understanding and can be experienced as empowering. These findings challenge classic conceptualizations of political engagement and open discussion about how to understand political behavior in increasingly diverse societies.



Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘”Hvor dansk skal man være for at være dansk?” Hvordan unge efterkommere af indvandrere fra Mellemøsten oplever mulighederne for at høre til i Danmark’. (2017) [PDF]

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘”Hvor dansk skal man være for at være dansk?” Hvordan unge efterkommere af indvandrere fra Mellemøsten oplever mulighederne for at høre til i Danmark’. Politica, no. 3, 2017, pp. 312–329.

Forskningen i integration af indvandrere og deres børn interesserer sig typisk for funktionelle og objektive mål, mens der mere sjældent sættes fokus på den identifikationsmæssige integration. På baggrund af dybdegående interviews undersøger jeg, hvordan unge efterkommere af indvandrere fra Mellemøsten opfatter grænsen til det danske, og hvilke konsekvenser dette har for deres følelse af nationalt tilhør. Analysen viser, at der er udbredt konsensus blandt interviewpersonerne om, hvilke markører der ekskluderer en fra det danske. Variationen i graden af nationalt tilhør blandt interviewpersonerne (fra sikker identifikation til dis-identifikation) forklares af, hvordan de opfatter deres egen placering i forhold til grænsen.

PDF: https://politica.dk/fileadmin/politica/Dokumenter/politica_49_3/kristina.pdf

Karrebæk, Martha Sif. ‘“Don’t speak like that to her!”: Linguistic minority children’s socialization into an ideology of monolingualism’. (2013)

Karrebæk, Martha Sif. ‘“Don’t speak like that to her!”: Linguistic minority children’s socialization into an ideology of monolingualism’. Journal of Sociolinguistics, vol. 17, no. 3, 2013, pp. 355–375.

It is of general interest to the study of language in society how ideologies motivating linguistic hegemony get formulated in the context of increasing diversity. This includes if and how linguistic diversity surfaces under conditions that are clearly disfavouring it, and why or why not it happens. Also, we need to know how ideologies of language surface at the micro-level, and how they are continuously passed on, shared, negotiated or contested. These are central issues in this study of socialization into a condition and an ideology of linguistic hegemony in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is illustrated how school-authorities, parents and children co-create Danish dominance and a linguistic ideology of monolingualism during the first school year. The primary focus is on two school-beginners with minority language background in a linguistically diverse classroom, and the linguistic registers of particular interest are Danish, the majority language, and Turkish, an immigrant language. The article builds on field-notes, ethnographic interviews, video- and audio-recordings. Linguistic Ethnography and Language Socialization constitute the methodological frameworks, and Silverstein’s ‘total linguistic fact’ forms an analytic principle.


Gilliam, Laura. Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen: modvilje og forskelsbehandling. (2018)

Gilliam, Laura. Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen: modvilje og forskelsbehandling. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2018.

Minoritetsdanske drenge eller ’indvandrerdrenge’, som de typisk kaldes i den offentlige debat, forbindes ofte med dårlige skoleresultater, ballade og kriminalitet. Samtidig peger flere undersøgelser på, at drengene mødes med negative forventninger og oplever at blive set skævt til og forskelsbehandlet i skolen. 

I Minoritetsdanske drenge i skolen. Modvilje og forskelsbehandling ser Laura Gilliam nærmere på drengenes position, selvforståelser og skolestrategier og diskuterer de sociale og kulturelle dynamikker, der er omkring etnicitet, racialisering, køn og skole. Med afsæt i interviews med 18 minoritetsdanske drenge beskriver hun, hvordan drengenes oplevelser af lærernes forventninger, modvilje og velvilje får betydning for deres præstationer og engagement i undervisningen. Positive forventninger og dialog om etnicitet og forskelsbehandling er afgørende, hvis de onde cirkler skal brydes. 


PDF med forord og indholdsfortegnelse: http://samples.pubhub.dk/9788771848274.pdf .

Dyrendom Graugaard, Naja. Tracing Seal: Unsettling narratives of kalaallit seal relations. (2020) [PDF]

Dyrendom Graugaard, Naja. Tracing Seal: Unsettling narratives of kalaallit seal relations. Dissertation. Aalborg University, 2020


Seals have carried  an  essentialrolein  the  unfolding  of Greenland as an Indigenous homeland,  colonized  territory,  and  self-governing  nation.During  the  past  many decades, seals  have  also been  a topicof  controversybetween  international  political actors,  animal  welfare  groups,  and  Inuit  communities.This doctoral thesisexplores Kalaallit[Greenlandic Inuit] relations withsealsas they arisein thesehistorical and contemporary  political  landscapes. By  tracing  ‘the  seal’  through  various  narrative trajectoriesin  Greenland,  the  thesis  engageswith thecomplexprocesses  through which coloniality  and Indigenous lifeways collide  and  interweave.While  dominant narrativesonInuit seal hunting –such as those forwarded in the EU Seal Regime–seem to underminelivedand place-based Kalaallit-seal relations, Kalaallit narratives of sealsalsounsettlethevery same‘seal regimes’.Suggesting thatnarratives encompassand navigaterelations between Kalaallit, Qallunaat[non-Inuit], and seals, the thesis examines  how seal  narratives engageand  unsettleprocesses  of colonizationin Greenland. This  article-based  doctoral  thesis  consists  of  four  academic  articles. Each  article isbased  ona  specific,  focused  study which  has emergedfrom  theresearchprocess  of ‘tracing seal’in Greenland.  Thefour  articlesspan topics  that  relate  tocolonial  and postcolonialsustainabilitynarratives,processes  of  Kalaallit  seal  hunting,  and  the seamstress work ofcreatingGreenlandic regalia. One of the articles, specifically, deals with  the  methodological  process  of  undertaking  this  thesis  research. By  paying attention  to  the  various  ways  in  which  seals  are  engaged,  narrated,  and  part  of Kalaallit “worlding”, the articles destabilize the tendency to reduce diverse Kalaallit-seal relations to simplified narratives within European conceptual vocabularies. Empirically, this research isbased on different materials that are generated from seven months  of  fieldwork  in  Greenland,  from archival  research, and from Greenlandic mediasources. It draws substantially on  interviews  with hunters,  seamstresses,  and other  persons  whose professions  relate  to seal  hunting  or sealskinsin  Greenland. Theoretically, the thesis seeks to elaborate on postcolonial theoretical applications in contemporary  studies  on  Greenland  by engagingdecolonial  and  Indigenous scholarships  from  within  and  outside  of  the  Arctic.The  thesis suggests  that this is a necessary  move in  order to  unsettle colonial  research  relations  in Arctic  scholarship and make way for other modes of thinking, knowing, sensing, and being in knowledge production.This approach transpiresinto the methodological frameworkof the thesis which works,auto-reflexivelyand  practically,to interrogateand  disruptresearcher positionality,academic privileges,  and  borderland  transgressionsin the  claims  to knowledge  on  Greenland. Altogether,  the thesis engageswiththe very process  of “tracing seal” asa way to explore the theoretical and practical tracks for Greenlandic decolonization.


Puisit,  Kalaallit  Nunaata  nunap  inooqqaavinut  nunagisatut,  nunasiaatitut  aamma nunatut namminersortutut ineriartornerata ingerlaneranut pingaaruteqarluinnarsimapput. Ukiut qulikkaat amerlasuut kingulliit ingerlaneranni, nunat assigiinngitsut akornanni politikikkut ingerlatsisut, uumasut atugarissaarnerannut  eqimattakkaat  aamma  inuiaqatigiit  Inuit  akornanni,  puisit akerleriinnermi aamma sammineqartarsimapput. Ph.d.-mut ilisimatuunngorniarnermi  ilisimatuutut  allaaserisap  matuma,  Kalaallit  [Kalaallit Nunaanni  Inuit]  aamma  puisit  imminut  atassuteqarnerat,  oqaluttuarisaanermi aamma  nalitsinni  politikikkut  isummat  inissisimaneranni  pilertarnerat  malillugu misissuiffigineqarput. Kalaallit Nunaanni oqaluttuarisaanermi aqqutit assigiinngitsut aqqutigalugit `Puisip ́ malinneratigut, ilisimatuutut allaaserisaq allanngoriartornernik katitigaasunik  sammisaqarpoq,  tassani  nunasiaaneq  aamma  nunap  inoqqaavisa inuusaasaat aporaapput imminullu ikaartiterneqarlutik. Massa inuit puisinniartarneri pillugit    oqaluttuat    saqquminerpaat –soorlu    taakku    EU-p    `puisit    pillugit aqutseriaasaanni ́ saqqummiunneqartut –Kalaallit puisillu akornanni atassuteqarnernik inuunermi aqqusaakkanik aamma sumiiffimmut tunngaveqartunik tunngaviannik  aserorterisut,  Kalaallit  puisinikoqaluttuaasa  aamma  `puisit  pillugit aqutseriaaseq ́  taannarpiaq  apeqquserpaat.  Aallaavigigaanni  oqaluttuat,  Kalaallit, Qallunaat  [Inuit  ilaginngisai],  aamma  puisit  akornanni  atassuteqarnermi  ilaqartut aamma  aqqutissiuisuusut,  ilisimatuutut  allaaserisami  misissorneqarpoq  qanoq  puisit pillugit, Kalaallit Nunaanni nunasiaateqarniarnerup ingerlaneranik sammisaqarnersut aamma apeqqusiinersut.Allaaserisanik    tunngaveqartumik    ph.d.-mik    ilisimatuutut    allaaserisaq    una, ilisimatusarnermi allaaserisanik sisamanik ilaqarpoq. Allaaserisat immikkut tamarmik misissuinermik aalajangersimasumik aamma ukkataqartumik tunngaveqarput, taakku Kalaallit  Nunaanni  `puisimik  malittarinninnermi ́  ilisimatusarnermi  suleriaatsimit saqqummersimapput. Allaaserisani sisamani, nunasiaataanermut aamma nunasiaataanerup kingorna piujuartitsinermik oqaluttuanut, Kalaallit puisinniartarnerani pisut ingerlasarneranut, aamma mersortartut kalaallisuuliortarneranut attuumassuteqartunik sammisat imaqarput. Allaaserisat ilaat ataaseq,  immikkut,  ilisimatuutut  allaaserisap  matuma  suliarineqarnerani  periaatsip ingerlaneranik sammisaqarpoq. Kalaallit nunarsuarmioqataallutik inuuneranni puisit assigiinngitsumik atorneqartarnerannik, oqaluttuarineqartarnerannik aamma ilaanerannik  maluginiagaqarnikkut,  allaaserisat  Kalaallit  puisinut  atassuteqarnerat katitigaasut,    Europamiut    paasinnittarnikkut  oqaatsit  inuit  atortagaasa    iluani oqaluttuanik oqilisaalluni nassuiaasarnikkut annikillisitseqqajaasarnerannik, qajannarsisitsipput.Misilittakkat  misissuinikkullu  paasisat  tunngavigalugit,  ilisimatusarneq  una  Kalaallit Nunaanni  qaammatit  arfineq-marluk  ornigulluni  sulinermit,  allagaataasivinni  7ilisimatusarnermit  aamma  Kalaallit  Nunaanni  tusagassiutitsigut  pissarsiffinnit najoqqutassanik assigiinngitsunik katersorneqarsimasunik tunngaveqarpoq. Piniartunik,    mersortartunik    aamma    inunnik    allanik    Kalaallit    Nunaanni puisinniarnermik imaluunniit puisit amiinik attuumassuteqartunik inuussutissarsiortunik apeqqarissaarfiginninnernik annertuumik atuivoq. Ilisimasaqarfigisat  aallaavigigaanni,  ilisimatuutut  allaaserisap,  maannakkut  Kalaallit Nunaanni    ilisimatusarnermi    nunasiaataanerup    kingorna    ilisimasaqarfigisanik atuilluni  itisiliinissaq  anguniarneqarpoq,  Issittumit  avataanilu  nunasiaateqarnermi aamma  nunap  inoqqaavinik  ilisimatusarnerit,  ilanngunnerisigut.  Ilisimatuutut allaaserisap  matuma  tikkuarpaa,  Issittumi  ilisimatusarnermi  nunasiaateqarnermi ilisimatusarnermut atassuteqarnerit qajannarsisinniarlugit ingerlariarnissaq, allatullu eqqarsartariaatsinut, ilisimasanut, malugisanullu aqqutissiuinissaq aamma ilisimasanik  pilersitsinermiinnissaq  pisariaqartoq.  Suleriaaseq  taanna,  ilisimatuutut allaaserisap pilersinneqarnerani periaatsimut tunngaviuvoq, nammineq inissisimanermut tikkuartumik eqqarsaatersorneq aamma ajornaatsumik, ilisimatuutut-inissisimanermik,  ilisimatuutut  immikkut  pisinnaatitaanernik  aamma Kalaallit  Nunaat  pillugu  ilisimasanik  peqarnerarnermi  killigititanik  qaangiinernik, unammillernissaq  aamma  akornusersuinissaq –tassani  sammineqarput.  Ataatsimut isigalugu,  ilisimatuutut  allaaserisap  matuma,  `puisimik ́  malittarinnilluni  suliap ingerlanerpiaa, Kalaallit Nunaata nunasiaajunnaarsinneqarnerani ilisimasaqarfigisat aallaavigalugit aamma aqqutinik piviusunik misissueriaatsitut sammisaqarpoq.


Sælen har haft en afgørende betydning for den måde Grønland har manifesteret sig som hjemland for et oprindeligt folk, et koloniseret område og en selvstyrende nation. Gennem de sidste mange årtier har sælen også været genstand for konflikter mellem internationalepolitiske aktører, dyrevelfærdsgrupper og Inuit-samfund. Denne ph.d. -afhandling  undersøgerrelationerne  mellem  sælen  og  Kalaallit [grønlandske  Inuit], som de udfolder sig historisk og i det moderne politiske landskab. Ved at følge ’sælen’ gennem  en  lang  række  narrative  spor i  Grønland,  beskæftiger  afhandlingen sig med de komplekse processer hvori kolonialitet og oprindelige livsformer kolliderer og væver sig  sammen.  Mens  de  dominerende  narrativer  om  inuitisk  sælfangst–fx  i  EU’s ’sælregime’–underminerer delokaleog levede relationer mellem Kalaallit og sælen, så anfægterKalaallit narrativer de selvsamme ’sælregimer’. Med det udgangspunkt at narrativer omfatter og manøvrererrelationer mellem Kalaallit, Qallunaat [ikke-Inuit] og  sælen,  undersøger afhandlingen  hvordan  sælnarrativer  adresserer og  forstyrrer koloniseringsprocesser i Grønland.Denne artikelbaserede ph.d.-afhandlingbestår af fire akademiske artikler. Hver artikel er  baseret  på  et  specifikt,  fokuseret  studie,  som  er  opstået igennem denne forskningsprocesmed at ’følge’ sælen i Grønland. De fire artikler spænder over emner, der  beskæftiger  sig  med  koloniale  og  postkoloniale bæredygtigheds-narrativer, processer  vedrørende  Kalaallit  sæljagt,  og  syerskersarbejde  med  at  skabe  den grønlandske nationaldragt. En af artiklerne behandler specifikt den metodiske proces, som  har  fulgt  med  afhandlingens  tilblivelse. Ved  at kaste  opmærksomhed  på  de forskellige  måder  som  sæler  fortælles og  engageres  i Kalaallit livsverdener, destabiliserer artiklerne tendensen til at reducere komplekse Kalaallit-sæl relationer til forenklede narrativer ieuropæiske konceptuelle vokabularer. Empirisk er denne forskning baseret på forskelligartet materiale som hidrører fra syv måneders feltarbejde i Grønland,fra arkivforskning og fra grønlandske mediekilder. Den trækker i væsentlig grad på interviews med fangere, syersker og andre personer, hvis erhverv berører sæljagteller sælskind i Grønland. Teoretisk søger afhandlingenat elaborere den postkoloniale teorirammei den nuværendeGrønlandsforskning ved at inddrage  dekolonialogIndigenousforskningfra såvel  Arktis,  som  udenfor. Afhandlingen peger på, at dette er et nødvendigt skridt i retningen mod at destabilisere kolonialerelationer i Arktisk forskning og skaffe plads til andre måder at tænke, vide, føle  og  være  i  vidensproduktion. Denne  tilgang  er  grundlaget  for tilblivelsen  af afhandlingens metodiske ramme, som arbejder med–selv-refleksivt og praktisk–at udfordre og forstyrre forsker-positionalitet, akademiske privilegier, og ’grænselande’i forskningen om  Grønland. Samlet  set,  beskæftiger  afhandlingen  sig  med  selve processen at følge’sælen’ som en måde at udforske de teoretiske og praktiske spor for grønlandsk afkolonisering.

PDF: https://vbn.aau.dk/ws/portalfiles/portal/332493608/PHD_Naja_Dyrendom_Graugaard_E_pdf.pdf

Buchardt, Mette. ‘Skolens produktion af muslimskhed’. (2016)

Buchardt, Mette. ‘Skolens produktion af muslimskhed’. Unge Pædagoger, vol. 2016, no. 2, Foreningen Unge Pædagoger, 2016, pp. 67–73.

Folkeskolen har jævnligt været omdrejningspunkt for panik om relationer mellem ‘dansk kultur’ og ‘muslimsk kultur’, og skolefaget Kristendomskundskab har ofte – sammen med f.eks. spiseregler og badeforhæng – været på f.eks. mediernes dagsorden.

Men hvordan tager spørgsmål om ‘religion’/‘kultur’ sig ud hvis man studerer det i klasserummet og når det faglige indhold er defineret som religion? Hvilken viden om ‘religion’ produceres? Hvilke måder at være elev på? Og hvordan indgår panikker om ‘muslimskhed’ og ‘danskhed’/‘kristenhed’ i klasserummets taler og andre praktikker?

Denne artikel kaster lys over hvordan skolen også er med til at producere forestillinger om muslimer, og giver samtidig en indføring i hvordan denne viden er produceret forskningsmæssigt: Hvordan kan man via observation og interview undersøge hvad (her) religion bliver gjort til – hvordan det særligt tager sig ud – i skolen.



Li, Jin Hui. ‘Students’ Strategies for Position-Taking in Transnational Education’. (2016) [PDF]

Li, Jin Hui. ‘Students’ Strategies for Position-Taking in Transnational Education’. Praktiske Grunde, vol. 3–4, 2016, pp. 53–72.

The article illuminates the positions distributed and the strategies for position-taking which students pursue in order to transform or preserve their positions in a classroom with a transnational context where students have different national and international education experiences. Furthermore, how their positions are related to their aspirations for the future will be elucidated. Based on interviews with Danish and Chinese students enrolled at a SinoDanish university situated in Beijing, the article identifies four different navigation strategies for position-taking in such a classroom as a field of struggle. The article discusses in depth how different student positions are led by the dispositions of having a certain nationality combined with international experiences/travel mobility. It will furthermore also discuss how the dispositions of national academic capital are related to students’ ways of operating the positions.


PDF: http://praktiskegrunde.dk/2016/praktiskegrunde(2016-3+4f)li.pdf.

Li, Jin Hui. Shaping Ideals of Future Citizenry in Transnational Higher Education: An Analysis of the Formation of Student Subjectivities in a New Transnational Institutional Environment. (2018) [PDF]

Li, Jin Hui. Shaping Ideals of Future Citizenry in Transnational Higher Education: An Analysis of the Formation of Student Subjectivities in a New Transnational Institutional Environment. Diss. Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2018.

The dissertation explores the relation between transnational higher education, nation-state formation and student subjectivities and identities. This relation is addressed through exploring the processes of construction of student subjectivity and of ideals of future citizenry in a new kind of transnational education. In this new kind of transnational education, it is no longer either the program or the students that are mobile, but ratherboth. The dissertation is theoretically grounded in a Foucauldian framework. It combines different readings and refinements of Foucault’s notion of subject, power and knowledge. These combinations are linked with Crenshaw’s concept of intersectionality. The bridging of different readings aim at developing a more issue-specific framework to illustrate the specific aspects of subjectivity processes in this kind of education. It means that the bridging of the different theoretical readings is adjusted to the issues that are empirically found in such transnational education. The investigation has two related layers of focus: the concrete microprocesses of the lived education life of students in such an institution and the policy-historical contextualization of the emergence of such institutions. Two main research questions will guide the two layers: What possibilities for constructing subjectivities and ideals of citizenry appear when students with different national educational experiences meet in a new educational context built on transnational cooperation?And how can we historically understand the emergence of this new education cooperation as part of nation-state building?

The empirical materials consist of pilot interviews with students at the Sino-Danish University Center (SDC), an ethnographical study at the SDC in Beijing for four months and a policy-historical study that contextualizes the emergence of the SDC. At the SDC the students, faculty and staff (primarily) consist of both Chinese and Danes. The explored aspects of subjectivity and future citizenry are in this dissertation operationalized in the following themes: the changing perceptions of significant national cultural practices in education, the students’ reasoning about emotional (re)actions, students’ performances of place-identities in a scaled practice (in which a certain scale ix materializes for instance the national scale) and the historical emergence of this new education cooperation as part of nation-state building.

The analytical findings show that in the transnational educational spaces, students are required to reflect on and narrate themselves as future citizenry more or less explicitly bound to nation-states. These structures are connected to national imaginaries and the racial hierarchies that are part of processes in the transnational educational context. Thus, thisdisplays that although students might not always explicitly articulate their reflections on their future national citizenry, their bodies are marked through the category of nationality and race. In this way, the nationality and race sensitivity in the transnational education becomes part of (re )building the nation-states as part of ‘the West’ and ‘the East’. These findings are contextualized through the policy-historical analysis, as thepolitics of national citizenry in the policies are echoed in the spatial power relations in the transnational education space. The politics of national citizenry for China and Denmark are as well built upon the imaginaries of the nation’s future and its citizenry, something which seems reliant on ‘the global’ and ‘global-national relationships’: The need to have knowledge from abroad becomes essential to the nation-state’s survival. In that way, the student who goes abroad (also through transnational cooperation) is acting as a national citizen. It is a citizen thatachieves knowledge from and about the other nation-states to serve the nation.

The analytical findings also suggest that the sensitivity to nationality and race in the transnational educational institution is interlocked with gender and age. As such, the possibilities to aspire to a certain scaled place-identity, or to be surfaced with certain emotions, are differently produced for female and male students in the transnational context. These differentiated processes are produced in relation to how age is performed in the future aspirations; how the students’ body is inscribed with a gendered age, for instance as having a body with a potential for biological reproduction that is limited by time. Consequently, the dissertation shows that the forms of citizenry fashioned in a transnational educational institution are nationalized and raced/racialized (inflected and articulated with age and gender). In this, the dissertation illustrates that the processes x of subjectivity construction in such a context are played out through different unequal interlockings of power relations. In this way, a microversion of the global power relations and inequalities is processed in the transnational educational spaces.


Afhandlingen undersøger relationen mellem transnational universitets-uddannelse, nationalstatens opbygning (formation) og studerendessubjektivitet og identitet. Denne relation adresseres gennem undersøgelseaf, hvordan studentersubjektivitet og idealet for at være fremtidig borger fabrikeres i en ny type transnational uddannelse. I denne nye type transnational uddannelse er det ikke længere enten uddannelse eller de studerende, som er mobile, men snarere begge dele. Afhandlingen er teoretisk funderet i en Foucault-inspireret begreb-sramme. Den teoretiske ramme kombinerer forskellige læsninger og videre-udviklinger af Foucaults begreb om subjekt, magt og viden i kombination med Crenshaws begreb om intersektionalitet. Målet med at forbinde deforskellige læsninger er at udvikle en mere ’issue’-speficik og -sensitiv begrebs-ramme til at belyse de kontekstuelle aspekter af subjektivitetsprocesser i denne type uddannelse. Det betyder, at kombinationerne er tilpasset de tematikker, der empirisk træder frem i sådan en type transnational uddannelse. Undersøgelsen har to relaterede lag: dels de konkrete mikroprocesser af det levede uddannelsesliv blandt studerende i den transnationale uddannelses-institution og dels en policy-historisk kontekstualisering af opkomsten af sådan en type institution. I sammenhæng hermed guider to hovedforskningsspørgsmål undersøgelsensrespektive lag, nemlig: Hvilke muligheder for konstruktion af subjektivitet og idealer om fremtidige borgere opstår, når studerende med forskellige nationale uddannelseserfaringer mødes i en uddannelseskontekst baseret på trans-nationalt samarbejde? Og hvordan kan vi historisk forstå opkomsten af dette nye uddannelsessamarbejde som en del af nationalstatsopbygning?

Det empiriske materiale for afhandlingen består af pilotinterviews med studerende indskrevet på Sino-Danish University Center (SDC), et etnografisk studie i SDC i Beijing igennem fire måneder og et policy-historisk studie, som kontekstualiserer opkomsten/fremkomsten af SDC. De aspekter af konstruktion af subjektivitet og fremtidige borgere, der er undersøgt i denne afhandling, er operationaliseret gennem følgende xii temaer: Den ændrede opfattelse af betyd-ningen af national-kulturelle praksisser i transnational uddannelse; de studeren-des måde at ræsonnere om emotionelle reaktioner og handlinger; de studerendes performance af steds-identiteter som skalerede praksisser (hvorigennem en be-stemt skala bliver til, som f.eks. det nationale) samt den historiske opkomst af den nye form for uddannelsessamarbe jde som en del af nationalstatsopbyg-ning.

De analytiske fund viser, at i det transnationale uddannelsesrum skal de studerende i mere eller mindre eksplicit grad reflektere over og relatere sig selv som fremtidige borgere på en måde, der er knyttet til nationalstater. Disse strukturer er bundet til imaginære nationale forestillinger (national imaginaries) i sammenhæng med raciale hierarkier, som præger de processer, der finder sted i den transnationale uddannelseskontekst, der her domineres af nationalstaterne Danmark og Folkerepublikken Kina. Det viser sig således også, at selvom studerende ikke altid eksplicit artikulerer deres refleksioner over deres frem-tidige nationale borgerskab, er mønsteret, at deres kroppe er markeret gennem kategorierne nationalitet og race. I den studerede kontekst bliver den na-tionalitets- og raciale sensitivitet i transnational uddannelse en del af (gen)-opbygningen af nationalstater på en måde, der er indlejret i kategorier som ”Vesten” og ”Østen”, og som dermed trækker på raciale hierarkier. Disse fund er kontekstualiseret gennem en policy-historisk analyse. Her genfindes den nationalstatsorienterede identitetspolitik for borgerskab i de magtrelationer, som det transnationale uddannelsesrum udgøres af. For såvel Kina som for Danmark bygges national identitetspolitik for borgerskab på forestillinger om nationens fremtid, hvor borgerskabsidealet er koblet til ’det globale’ og relationen mellem det globale og det nationale. Det at få viden fra udlandet bliver essentieltfor nationalstatens overlevelse. På den måde agerer de studerende, som tager ud i verden (også gennem transnationale uddannelser), som nationale borgere. Det er borgere, som opnår viden fra og om de andre nationale stater for at tjene nationen.

De analytiske fund peger også på, at nationalitets- og racial sensitivitet i den transnationale uddannelsesinstitution er samproduceret ogsammenvævet (interlocking) med køn og alder. Det betyder, at xiiimulighederne for at aspirere til en specifik skaleret steds-identitet og for at blive indholdsudfyldt med parti-kulære emotioner produceres forskelligt for kvindelige og mandlige studerende i den transnationale uddannelseskontekst. Disse differentierende processr finder sted i relation til, hvordan alder performes i forhold til fremtidsaspirationer; hvordan de studerendes kroppe tilskrives en kønnet alder, f.eks. i form af dét at have en krop med biologisk reproduktiv evne, der er tidsbegrænset. På denne baggrund viser afhandlingen, at mulighederne for konstruktion af subjektivitet i den transnationale uddannelseskontekst er bundet til racialiserede og national-statsrelaterede kategorier, som produceres gennem differentierede og ulige ’interlockings’ af magtrelationer. Det transnationale uddannelsesrum ud-spiller på denne vis en mikroudgave af globale magthierarkier, -kampe og ulig-heder

PDF: https://vbn.aau.dk/da/publications/shaping-ideals-of-future-citizenry-in-transnational-higher-educat.

Buchardt, Mette. Identitetspolitik i klasserummet: ‘Religion’ og ‘kultur’ som viden og social klassifikation. Studier i et praktiseret skolefag. (2008) [PDF]

Buchardt, Mette. Identitetspolitik i klasserummet: ‘Religion’ og ‘kultur’ som viden og social klassifikation. Studier i et praktiseret skolefag. Dissertation. University of Copenhagen, 2008.

This dissertation is a study of classroom curriculum that applies a combination of the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge. More specifically, it is a study of identity politics (in the plural) associated with ‘religion’ and ‘culture’ as they unfold in the classroom in relation to knowledge production and social classification. Categories such as ‘Muslim’ and ‘Danish’ are thus sought deconstructed in a study of the classroom as a setting for knowledge production and production of social difference. What kinds of knowledge of religion are produced? What spaces for subjects/subjectivities? What ways to be a pupil? And how does ‘Muslim-ness’ and ‘Danishness’/‘Christian-ness’ enter into in the social economy of the classroom? The classroom is thus studied as a micropolitical arena for relations and politics regarding minorities and the majority and the ways in which they figure in the social economy of the classroom.   

The data material of the project is based on my observations of two delimited educational modules in the primary school subject Kristendomskundskab (literally: Knowledge about Christianity) at two different schools located in the same Copenhagen neighborhood. Both educational modules deal with several religions, particularly Christianity and Islam. The material consists of sound recordings of classroom speech, by systematic registrations focusing on turn-taking, by interviews with teachers and pupils and finally a questionnaire for the parents concerning information of a socioeconomic nature.   

The project’s perspective on the classroom is inspired by Basil Bernstein’s concepts of recontextualizing and pedagogic discourse as a way to conceptualize and study forms of knowledge as well as how they are reshaped and produced in school on the terms of the logic of the pedagogic field of practice. This Bernsteinian perspective on the educational system and curriculum makes up the overall framework of the dissertation in which I employ two parallel analytical strategies, i.e. one drawing on the concept of discursive regularity (Michel Foucault) – allowing me to analyze the production of the educational content – and the concepts of social space and field (Pierre Bourdieu), enabling me to analyze the ways in which agents are produced in the social economy of the classroom. The study of discursive regularity in relation to the formation of knowledge and subjects is concretized by the discourse analytical framework of sociolinguist Norman Fairclough through studies of linguistic practice, namely classroom conversation, while the Bourdieuian key concepts are concretized through studies of turn-taking practices and the categorization and acknowledgment practices of the teachers.   

 The dissertation links the study of the classroom as knowledge and subject production to a conception of societal ‘classes’ as production of social classification – practices of acknowledgment and non-acknowledgement that function in conjunction with possession of economic capital and capitals related to cultural education [Bildung]. The point is that ‘religion’/‘culture’ may be understood as clusters of knowledge, but also as subject-producing technologies coloring and forming bodies. Moreover, these knowledge clusters are simultaneously tinted by the social economy associated with the bodies of the agents as they are being transformed and produced in the social economy of the classroom.   

When the categorical cluster ‘religion’/‘culture’ is discussed from a perspective of social classification, it may be understood as something that does more than merely interact with social classification. These subject-generating knowledge clusters – themselves populated by subjects – related to ‘religion’/‘culture’ in the classroom curriculum constitute a productive and potent part of the social classification. In light of the concept of capitals, they are thus bound up with and have consequences for social distribution. Categories such as ‘Muslim’ and ‘Danish’/‘Christian’ are in themselves to be understood as a process of social classification and distribution. Thus, ‘religion’ may be understood as a class-producing practice having a vital institutional life in something that should not be perceived as a religious institution in the formal sense, but rather as a state institution and as such embedded in societal structuring.

PDF: https://vbn.aau.dk/en/publications/identitetspolitik-i-klasserummet-religion-og-kultur-som-viden-og-.

Hervik, Peter. ‘The Danish Cultural World of Unbridgeable Differences’. (2004)

Hervik, Peter. ‘The Danish Cultural World of Unbridgeable Differences’. Ethnos, vol. 69, no. 2, Routledge, June 2004, pp. 247–267.

This article looks at the contestation of foreign presence in Denmark from the perspective of popular consciousness. I infer the cultural world of Danish host and non-Danish guests from a pool of 55 in-depth interviews about multicultural issues. In this culturally figured world the guests are constructed as widely different cultural bearers who refuse to downplay their cultural markers, therefore upsetting the guests. According to this reasoning, the racial outburst of the hosts is caused solely by the unruly guests. Blaming the guests for creating racist responses, I contend, can best be understood as a naturalization of racism. This denial of racism in the popular sphere builds on the same culturalist construction of unbridgeable differences between a ‘we-group’ of ‘alike’ (or invisible) Danes and a visible ‘out group’ that dominates both popular and political understandings of immigrants and refugees in Denmark in the end of the 1990s.



Hjarvard, Stig, and Mattias Pape Rosenfeldt. ‘Planning Public Debate: Beyond Entrenched Controversies About Islam’. (2018) [PDF]

Hjarvard, Stig, and Mattias Pape Rosenfeldt. ‘Planning Public Debate: Beyond Entrenched Controversies About Islam’. Contesting Religion, Ed. Knut Lundby, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2018, 117–134. Crossref,

The contentious public debates about Islam in Scandinavia may to some extent be characterized as an entrenched conflict, upheld by stereotypical framings and fixed rhetorical positions. This case study examines public service media’s ability to facilitate public debates that move beyond such ingrained positions. Through interviews with key professionals behind the TV documentary Rebellion from the Ghetto, we examine the strategies for generating public debate about cultural and religious problems. We furthermore analyse online and offline debates, with particular focus on the inclusion of minority voices and how framings of religion enter and influence the discussion. By consciously downplaying the role of ‘religion’ and framing conflicts in terms of personal experiences and universal themes, the documentary managed to set the scene for a debate in which young Muslims’ various experiences were given authority, thereby allowing the debate to transcend the usual ‘us–them’, ‘majority–minority’ framing of these issues.


PDF: http://www.degruyter.com/view/books/9783110502060/9783110502060-012/9783110502060-012.xml.

Jensen, Tina Gudrun, Kristina Weibel, and Kathrine Vitus. ‘“There Is No Racism Here”: Public Discourses on Racism, Immigrants and Integration in Denmark’. (2017)

Jensen, Tina Gudrun, Kristina Weibel, and Kathrine Vitus. ‘“There Is No Racism Here”: Public Discourses on Racism, Immigrants and Integration in Denmark’. Patterns of Prejudice, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 51–68.

Jensen, Weibel and Vitus’s article critically discusses contemporary Danish policies aimed at the elimination of ethnoracial discrimination, drawing on policy analyses and qualitative interviews with local and national authorities in Denmark. It illustrates how questions of discrimination and racism are marginalized and de-legitimized within the dominant integration discourse, resulting in the marginalization of anti-racism in policymaking. The side-stepping of racism is being naturalized in public policies through strategies of denial and by addressing discrimination as a product of ignorance and individual prejudice rather than as embedded in social structures. The authors examine how immigration, integration and (anti-)racism as concepts and phenomena are understood and addressed in Danish public policies and discourses. Despite denials of racism in Denmark, Jensen, Weibel and Vitus show that, based on re-definitions of identities and relations, it continues to exist and is evident in public debates and policies on immigration and integration.



Jensen, Dr Tina Gudrun. ‘To Be “Danish”, Becoming “Muslim”: Contestations of National Identity?’ (2008)

Jensen, Dr Tina Gudrun. ‘To Be “Danish”, Becoming “Muslim”: Contestations of National Identity?’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 3, Routledge, Apr. 2008, pp. 389–409.

This article discusses the relationship between national, ethnic and religious identities as embodied by so-called ethnic Danes who convert to Islam. The point of departure is the constructed polarisation between Islam and the West. The article explores how converts experience their apparently contradictory identities as ‘Danish’ and ‘Muslim’. Identity is dealt with as processes of both difference and similarity, whereby the constructions of ‘self’ as ‘same’ and ‘other’ as ‘different’ are questioned. In exploring the space between ‘self’ and ‘other’ among Danish converts, it is argued that they negotiate their identities as both Danish and Muslims by engaging in an ideological struggle over otherwise commonsense meanings. This process opens a space for re-making identity by connecting relations between these identities, which are otherwise perceived as having nothing in common.


Koefoed, Lasse Martin, and Kirsten Simonsen. ‘“I Feel Danish but…”: A Case Study on National Identity Formation and Ambivalence’. (2013) [PDF]

Koefoed, Lasse Martin, and Kirsten Simonsen. ‘“I Feel Danish but…”: A Case Study on National Identity Formation and Ambivalence’. Geographica Helvetica, vol. 68, no. 3, Copernicus GmbH, Nov. 2013, pp. 213–222.

Non-western minorities in Europe, one can argue, are experiencing particularly vulnerable processes of subjectification and identification. They are often caught between double processes of inclusion/exclusion, integration/segregation or identification/estrangement. This article explores some of the complex and ambiguous processes of identification within this group, in connection with development of the spatial identity of Danishness. It starts with a short theoretical pinning down of the figure of “the stranger” working as a basis for the empirical analysis. Organised in three sections, each interpreting a specific narrative of identification, the analysis subsequently explores processes and problems of identity formation within a minority group increasingly designated as “strangers” within the Danish nation state. The article concludes on the different ways in which uncertainty and ambivalence infiltrate the identity formation.


PDF: https://rucforsk.ruc.dk/ws/portalfiles/portal/53947197/I_feel_danish.pdf.

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘What It Means to (Not) Belong: A Case Study of How Boundary Perceptions Affect Second-Generation Immigrants’ Attachments to the Nation’. (2018)

Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘What It Means to (Not) Belong: A Case Study of How Boundary Perceptions Affect Second-Generation Immigrants’ Attachments to the Nation’. Sociological Forum, vol. 33, no. 1, 2018, pp. 118–138.

Across Europe, the symbolic boundaries drawn against Muslim/Middle Eastern immigrants and their children are increasingly rigid and exclusive. While there is broad agreement in the literature that external symbolic boundaries matter for individuals’ self-identifications, the process by which boundaries translate into experiences of (not) belonging is theoretically underdeveloped and empirically understudied. Through inductive analysis of in-depth interviews with second-generation immigrants of Middle Eastern descent in Denmark, this study contributes to the literature by examining boundary perceptions as the mediating link between externally drawn boundaries and subjectively felt belonging. The analysis demonstrates widespread agreement in interviewees’ perception of a bright boundary. At the same time, however, there is variation in the degree of belonging, which is explained by the interviewees’ perceptions of their own position in relation to the boundary. A central contribution of the study is a suggested reconceptualization of the concept of belonging to improve our understanding of the complexity of how second-generation immigrants simultaneously feel attachment to and distance from the nation.



Khawaja, Iram. To belong everywhere and nowhere: fortællinger om muslimskhed, fællesgørelse og belonging. (2010) [PDF]

Khawaja, Iram. To belong everywhere and nowhere: fortællinger om muslimskhed, fællesgørelse og belonging. Roskilde: Dissertation. Roskilde Universitet, 2010.

Denne afhandling tager udgangspunkt i en interesse i at udforske spørgsmåletom, hvordandet er muligt at blive til som et ungtmuslimsk subjekti religiøse fællesskaber  i  København.  Dette  spørgsmål  undersøges  på  grundlag  af  en ambition  om  at lade  de  unges  egne stemmer  og fortællinger  komme  i forgrunden  i  forhold  til  de ofte  stereotypiserende  og  andetgørende  images, dereksisterer ommuslimer.Det gælder særligt unge muslimer, der tager del i religiøse    fællesskaber,    hvilket    fordrer    en    nærmere    undersøgelse    af betydningen  af  fællesskab.Det  sammenholdes  med  etfokus  på  belonging. Afhandlingen er på således bygget op om en multiaksial opmærksomhed  på, fælleshed, belonging og muslimskhedudfra en todelt interesse i: 1.Empirisk  udforskning  af  unge  muslimers  levede  liv  i  forhold  til  et fokus  på,  hvordan  de  positionerer  sig  i  forskellige  fællesgørende konteksterog  i  denne  sammenhæng  fortæller  sig  selv  frem  som muslimske subjekter.2.Teoretisk-begrebslig  udvikling,  der  kan  rykke  ved  og  tilbyde  nye måder at konceptualisere muslimskhed, fælleshed og belonging.  Det multiaksiale udgangspunkt og dets forskellige afgrænsninger ekspliciteres i kapitel 1. Afhandlingen  er  grundet  i  en poststrukturalistisk  og  socialkonstruktionistisk informeret  optik,  der  sammenlæser  et  foucauldiansk  og  deleuziansk perspektiv  medkonkrete  begreber  somf.eks.  kontekst,  fælleshed  og positionering.De metateoretiske og begrebslige aspekter ekspliciteres i kapitel 2, men der arbejdes videre med dem i afhandlingens analytiske læsninger.Det empiriske omdrejningspunkt for afhandlingen, som beskrives i kapitel 3, erbaseret  på deltagerobservationer  i  udvalgte  religiøse  foreninger  og fællesheder i København, samt kvalitative interviews af unge muslimer, med forskellige  kønnede,  etniske  og  racialetilhørsforhold. De  analysestrategiske greb  gøres  synlige  i  kapitel  4,  og  det  bliver  her  tydeligt,at  analysen struktureres om forskellige destabiliserende læsninger.  Afhandlingens  analyse  ersåledes  bygget  op  om som  et  rhizommed forskellige  akser  og  læsninger, som  er delt  op  i  tre  centralekapitler,  der  340henholdsvis  gør  fælleshed(kap.  5),  subjektiveringsbevægelser (kap.  6) og belonging(kap.7)til forgrund. Kapitlerne  er  vævet  sammen  af  forskellige  teoretisk-begrebslige  bevægelser, og  det  er  således  muligt  at  se  multiple  sammenhængende  overskridende bevægelser fra et klassisk fællesskabsbegreb til konceptet om fællesgørelse, fra intersektionalitet til transsektionalitet samt bevægelsen fra positionering til et translokalt  og  kropsligt  perspektiv  på  belonging.  Disse  bevægelser  udføres bl.a. på    grundlag    af    dynamiske    sammenlæsninger    af    feministiske, postkoloniale  og  poststrukturalistiske  perspektiver  på  kropslighed,  desire, translokalitet og diaspora, og kan mere generelt relateres til en metateoretisk bevægelse fra en konstruktionistisk til en post-konstruktionistisk optik.    De begrebslige  overskridelser  er forbundet  med  de  empirisk  fokuserede analytiske læsninger,  som peger på  en  forståelse  af muslimskhed som en flerstrenget proces, der bl.a. er flettet sammen af:

·Multisituerede    fællesgørende    bevægelser:    De    unge    muslimer konstruerer fælleshed på forskellige måder og anvender muslimskhed som central akse i konstruktionen af en ”naturlig” fælleshed  om  at være  muslimske  andre.  Ofte  er  fællesheden  om  at  være  muslimske andre forbundet med en etnisk andetgørende fælleshed. Fællesgørelse konstrueres    i    denne    sammenhæng    igennem    subjektiverende bevægelser og en desire for belonging og genkendelse. ·Intersektionelle og transsektionelle subjektiveringsbevægelser, der går i retning af en selvfremstilling som passende og intelligibelt religiøst andet  subjekt,  men  som  ofte  sammenlæser  etnisk  andethed  med religøs  andethed.  Det  er  forbundet  med  forskellige  muligheder  for kropsligt  at  forhandle  sin  synlige/ikke-synlige  muslimskhed  og andethed i forhold til forskelligedisciplinerende blikke. ·Diasporiske  konstruktioner  af  hjem  og  belonging,  der  fører  til  nye nye  måder at  forhandledistinktionerne  mellem  hjemland,  hjem  og belonging. Bestemte  lokationer,  subjektpositioner  og  kategorier investeres med hjemliggørende desires. Hjem er følgelig ikke et sted men en desire for belonging.Muslimskhed  konceptualiseres  således  som  en  decentraliseret  bevægelse,  der er  flettet  sammen  af  de  unges  forskellige  gørelser af  fælleshed,  belonging  og subjektivering.Præmisserne forudviklingen og fremskrivningen af disse teoretisk-analytiske og empirisk-analytiske læsningereksploreres i kapitel 8, hvor der sættesfokus på  forskerpositionering.  Forskerpositionering  diskuteres  som  konkrete  341positioneringsmuligheder  som  kvindeligt  og  etnisk  kropsmarkeret  religiøs andet forskerubjekt i et politiseretforskningsfelt.  De midlertidige analytiske lukninger opsummeres i kapitel 9, hvor der samles op på centrale teoretisk-begrebslige og empiriske snit fra de unges levede liv.  Det bliver i denne forbindelse tydeligt, at afhandlingen tilbyder et rhizomatisk perspektiv  på muslimskhed som  en decentraliseret  bevægelse,som er forbundet  med  og  defineret  af  deunges  forskellige  gørelser  af  fælleshed, belonging  og  subjektivering.  Det  kommer bl.a.  kommer  til  udtryk  i  nye  og transsektionelle  betydningskonstellationer  som  f.eks.  konstruktioner  af  en ”dansk  muslimskhed”,  en  kosmopolitisk  hjemliggørelse  af  verden,  og konstruktionen af muslimskhed som translokalt hjemog multirettet desire.


PDF: https://www.academia.edu/31322749/To_belong_everywhere_and_nowhere_fort%C3%A6llinger_om_muslimskhed_f%C3%A6llesskab_og_belonging.

Klausen, Jytte. The Cartoons That Shook the World. (2009)

Klausen, Jytte. The Cartoons That Shook the World. Yale University Press, 2009.

On September 30, 2005, the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published twelve cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad. Five months later, thousands of Muslims inundated the newspaper with outpourings of anger and grief by phone, email, and fax; from Asia to Europe Muslims took to the streets in protest. This book is the first comprehensive investigation of the conflict that aroused impassioned debates around the world on freedom of expression, blasphemy, and the nature of modern Islam.  Jytte Klausen interviewed politicians in the Middle East, Muslim leaders in Europe, the Danish editors and cartoonists, and the Danish imam who started the controversy. Following the winding trail of protests across the world, she deconstructs the arguments and motives that drove the escalation of the increasingly globalized conflict. She concludes that the Muslim reaction to the cartoons was not-as was commonly assumed-a spontaneous emotional reaction arising out of the clash of Western and Islamic civilizations. Rather it was orchestrated, first by those with vested interests in elections in Denmark and Egypt, and later by Islamic extremists seeking to destabilize governments in Pakistan, Lebanon, Libya, and Nigeria. Klausen shows how the cartoon crisis was, therefore, ultimately a political conflict rather than a colossal cultural misunderstanding.


Larsen, Jeppe. ‘Talking about Radicalization’. (2019)

Larsen, Jeppe. ‘Talking about Radicalization’. Nordic Journal of Criminology, vol. 21, Oct. 2019, pp. 1–18.

This article seeks to build a bridge between the criminological tradition of research on hard-to-reach groups and sensitive topics and the tradition of critical research on radicalization. As a result of the hard-to-reach character of so-called radicals themselves, the article analyzes interview experiences with ‘professionals’ working within the prevention of radicalization and other actors. This article discusses the experiences connected to the preparation and unfolding of the interviews on the sensitive topic of radicalization and illustrates how interviews and questions designed to gather knowledge about radicalization processes among Muslims in Denmark often became a discussion about the concept of radicalization itself. This article shows that making use of the concept of radicalization is problematic in interviews as it is embedded in the Danish political discourse on immigration, Muslims and Islam. This article reflects on researcher positionality and how being a white ethnic Danish researcher might have caused an underestimation of how problematic the concept is to people directly involved with it, and that speaking from such a researcher positionality also can make the concept of radicalization seem even more problematic.


Myong, Lene. ‘Bliv Dansk, Bliv Inkluderet: Transnational Adoption i et in- Og Eksklusionsperspektiv’. (2011) [PDF]

Myong, Lene. ‘Bliv Dansk, Bliv Inkluderet: Transnational Adoption i et in- Og Eksklusionsperspektiv’. Pædagogisk Psykologisk Tidsskrift, vol. 48, no. 3, 2011, pp. 268–276,

Idealer om social og pædagogisk inklusion fylder meget i disse år. Men hvilke præmisser betinger inklusion? Og hvordan lader det sig gøre at reflektere over inklusionens egne eksklusioner? Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i et kvalitativt studie af transnational adoption i en dansk kontekst, og den viser både, hvordan inklusion for transnationalt adopterede forudsætter tilpasning til en dansk norm, og hvordan selvsamme inklusion producerer normen som mangfoldighedsvenlig og tolerant.


PDF: https://www.academia.edu/8545035/Bliv_dansk_bliv_inkluderet_transnational_adoption_i_et_in_og_eksklusions_perspektiv.

Perry, Kevin. Framing Trust at the Street Level. (2012) [PDF]

Perry, Kevin. Framing Trust at the Street Level. Dissertation. Roskilde University, 2012.

This thesis deals with the phenomenon of distrust and trust between young men with minority ethnic backgrounds and public sector employees at the face-to-face level of interaction. The focus is on trust and distrust which can be understood as cultural resources – a valuable approach to researching trust and distrust largely under-represented in the trust literature. A common source of conflict is often a lack of confidence or distrust in the authorities; therefore, winning the confidence of minority ethnic groups in these communities is essential to easing tensions, along with reducing civil unrest, antisocial behaviour, crime and unnecessary public spending. The purpose of this in-depth study, based on nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in and around two residential housing estates, is to contribute towards understanding the micro-processes at play in distrust and trust building processes between public sector employees and young men with minority ethnic backgrounds, an under-researched and often misunderstood area. The central focus is on the relationship between the young men with minority ethnic backgrounds, a team of youth workers, a job consultant and a police officer. This study explores the relationships from the perspectives of some of the young men and the aforementioned professionals, thus exploring the relationship from both sides of the coin. The thesis draws primarily on data gathered during fieldwork i.e. in-depth and ethnographic interviews, observations and artefacts such as media and local authority reports. In addition to the empirical material, the study explores a key governmental policy to investigate how the (previous) government names and frames people with minority ethnic backgrounds. Analysing this policy helps to locate the fieldwork and interactants into the wider cultural and structural context, while at the same time, contributes towards explaining why some local authority actors use certain frames and not others when talking about the young men with minority ethnic backgrounds. A number of research questions have guided the process which revolves around the experiences of the young men with minority ethnic backgrounds and the aforementioned professionals. The problem formulation is: How can trust (and distrust) be understood as a cultural resource and what are the implications for public sector employees who work with young men with minority ethnic backgrounds in the community?

PDF: https://rucforsk.ruc.dk/ws/files/38396769/KEVINPERRYTHESISFINALDRAFTSECURECOPY_May_2012.pdf.

Myong, Lene. ‘At Blive En Ligeværdig Dansk Kvinde -Fortællinger Om Race, Køn Og Heteroseksualitet’. (2009) [PDF]

Myong, Lene. ‘At Blive En Ligeværdig Dansk Kvinde -Fortællinger Om Race, Køn Og Heteroseksualitet’. Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no. 2, 2, May 2009.

Drawing from a qualitative study on transnational adoption this article explores the question of racialized becoming in a Danish context. The analysis is based on interviews with adult female Korean adoptees, and it finds that discursively constructed categories of Asian femininity are marked by processes of hypersexualization. Hence, the interviewees negotiate subjectivity from intersections where colonial and racialized fantasies of Asian women, as both victims of patriarchy and inherently sexually promiscuous, clash with Danish ideals of gender equality. Ideals that are racialized as white.


PDF: https://tidsskrift.dk/KKF/article/view/27986.

Petersen, Niels Bjørn Grund. ‘Disciplining the Strong? Discrimination of Service Users and the Moderating Role of PSM and Ability to Cope’. (2021)

Petersen, Niels Bjørn Grund. ‘Disciplining the Strong? Discrimination of Service Users and the Moderating Role of PSM and Ability to Cope’. Public Management Review, vol. 23, no. 2, Feb. 2021, pp. 168–188.

Ethnic stereotypes influence frontline workers’ decision-making, which challenges the legitimacy of public organizations. In this article, we examine how ethnic stereotypes affect caseworkers’ sanctioning behaviour in a context where the client group consists of highly vulnerable clients. Using survey experimental vignettes and qualitative interviews, we find that social caseworkers use ethnic classification in their decision-making. However, contrary to our expectations, caseworkers are less likely to sanction clients with a nonwestern ethnicity compared to ethnic Danish clients. In addition, the article finds novel evidence indicating that employee traits mitigate the use of ethnic stereotypes.



Sandset, Tony. Color That Matters : A Comparative Approach to Mixed Race Identity and Nordic Exceptionalism. (2018)

Sandset, Tony. Color That Matters : A Comparative Approach to Mixed Race Identity and Nordic Exceptionalism. Routledge, 2018.

This book examines the ways in which mixed ethnic identities in Scandinavia are formed along both cultural and embodied lines, arguing that while the official discourses in the region refer to a “post-racial” or “color blind” era, color still matters in the lives of people of mixed ethnic descent. Drawing on research from people of mixed ethnic backgrounds, the author offers insights into how color matters and is made to matter and into the ways in which terms such as “ethnic” and “ethnicity” remain very much indebted to their older, racialized grammar.

Color that Matters moves beyond the conventional Anglo-American focus of scholarship in this field, showing that while similarities exist between the racial and ethnic discourses of the US and UK and those found in the Nordic region, Scandinavia, and Norway in particular, manifests important differences, in part owing to a tendency to view itself as exceptional or outside the colonial heritage of race and imperialism. Presenting both a contextualization of racial discourses since World War II based on documentary analysis and new interview material with people of mixed ethnic backgrounds, the book acts as a corrective to the blind spot within Scandinavian research on ethnic minorities, offering a new reading of race for the Nordic region that engages with the idea that color has been emptied of legitimate cultural content.