Rydgren, Jens. ‘Explaining the Emergence of Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties: The Case of Denmark’. West European Politics, vol. 27, no. 3, Routledge, May 2004, pp. 474–502.
This article aims to explain the emergence of the Danish People’s Party, a radical right-wing populist party, by using a model combining political opportunity structures and the diffusion of new master frames. The article shows that because of dealignment and realignment processes – as well as the politicisation of the immigration issue – niches were created on the electoral arena. The Danish People’s Party was able to mine these niches by adopting a master frame combining ethno-pluralist xenophobia and anti-political establishment populism, which had proved itself successful elsewhere in Western Europe (originally in France in the mid-1980s). In this process of adaptation, a far right circle of intellectuals, the Danish Association, played a key role as mediator.
Kim-Larsen, Mette A. E. ‘Danish Milk’. Adoption & Culture, vol. 6, no. 2, Ohio State University Press, 2018, pp. 353–363.
Drinking milk cites white and Danish and thus frames the lactose-tolerant subject with firstness. This is grounded in a discourse of unilinear evolutionary progression that constructs the lactose-tolerant body as a metaphor for the Danish nation-state and makes lactose-intolerant adoptee bodies an external threat.
Ivenäs, Sabina. ‘White Like Me: Whiteness in Scandinavian Transnational Adoption Literature’. Scandinavian Studies, vol. 89, no. 2, [Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study, University of Illinois Press], 2017, pp. 240–265.
From introduction: This paper problematizes the concept of whiteness by applying it in the context of the Scandinavian transnational/transracial adoptee. What is unique about the Scandinavian transracial adoptee is that theyalmost exclusively grow up and live in white segregated middle- class environments (Hübinette 2007). Nevertheless, Scandinavian trans-racial adoptees blend in seamlessly with white Scandinavian society in terms of language, culture, and behavior. at the same time, in contrast to transracial adoptees in more diverse countries such as the such as the United States, Canada, France, Australia, and the Netherlands, the Scandinavian transracial adoptee non-white body becomes extremely concrete (Hübinette 2007, 117). In this paper, which conducts a critical reading of Scandinavian transnational adoption autofiction, I consider how Scandinavian transracial adoptees negotiate the fact that they, as non-white individuals are raised in, and thereby indoctrinated into, the whiteness norm. In line with Dyer’s perspective on how whiteness is studied within white Western culture, this paper sets out to explore how self-representation of whiteness is depicted in Scandinavian trans-national adoptee autofiction. How do the Scandinavian transnational/transracial adoptees represent themselves as white in literary texts?
Enstad, Johannes Due. Antisemitic Violence in Europe, 2005-2015. Exposure and Perpetrators in France, UK, Germany, Sweden, Denmark and Russia. Center for Studies of the Holocaust and Religious Minorities and Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo, 2017.
How often do incidents of antisemitic violence occur in contemporary Europe, and what trends are showing? How exposed are Jewish populations in different countries? Who commits these crimes? We need to answer such questions as precisely as possible in order to effectively combat and prevent antisemitism in general and violent antisemitism in particular, but we lack the knowledge to do so because systematic studies of the subject are few and far between. As a step towards filling this research gap, the current report presents some tentative findings about violent antisemitism in a sample of European countries and proposes directions for further research. Combining incident data based on police reporting with a 2012 survey on antisemitism carried out by the European Union’s Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), this report tentatively compares the levels of antisemitic violence in different countries. The seven-country sample contains comparable data for France, UK, Germany and Sweden only. Among these countries, Jews’ exposure to antisemitic violence appears to have been highest in France, lower in Sweden and Germany, and lowest in the United Kingdom. Figures for Norway, Denmark and Russia are not directly comparable because of differing data sources. However, Russia clearly stands out with a very low number of incidents considering Russia’s relatively large Jewish population. Russia is also the only case in which there is little to indicate that Jews avoid displaying their identity in public. Available data on perpetrators suggest that individuals of Muslim background stand out among perpetrators of antisemitic violence in Western Europe, but not in Russia, where right-wing extremist offenders dominate. Attitude surveys corroborate this picture in so far as antisemitic attitudes are far more widespread among Muslims than among the general population in Western Europe. The findings presented here are tentative. More and better data as well as more research are needed in order to form a more accurate picture of the nature and causes of antisemitic violence, a prerequisite for determining relevant countermeasures.
Bundsgaard, Mads Tobias. ‘Vilje og antisemitisme i Lykke-Per’. Rambam. Tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning, vol. 24, no. 1, 1, 2015.
Antisemitism in Lucky Per This article examines Henrik Pontoppidan’s novel Lucky Per (Danish: Lykke-Per) by bringing two perspectives into focus: a Jewish and an anti-Semitic. The article begins with a count of all the animal characteristics that are used to describe the characters in the novel. The count makes it clear, that Jews and non-Jews are equally described as possessing these animal characteristics. The argument that the author is anti-Semite biased is in this way disproved. Further, the article documents the anti-Semitism that is present in the time-span of the novel (1864-1905) in Copenhagen and in Berlin. That is, the raw, the mild and the structural anti-Semitism. The novel is seen as a well-informed portrayal of the period. The clerical family of Sidenius and the secular Jewish family of Salomon are the main foci of the analysis; especially the son Per Sidenius (Lucky Per) and the daughter Jakobe. The anti-Semitism, as it is described in the novel, is compared to historical literature throughout the article. In relation to the time of publication of the novel, the article accepts the general racial attitudes of the population, and the progress of the Jewish character Jakobe is interpreted as a Nietzschean act of will. The article ends by concluding that the author of the novel wants to prove that, in spite of everything, a Jewish woman is capable of forcing her way through an anti-Semitic society.
Jensen, Sune Qvotrup. ‘Kritik af dansk racismeforskning – og kritik af kritikken. Review-essay i anledning af Henning Bech og Mehmet Ümit Necef: Er Danskerne racister? Indvandrerforskningens problemer’. Dansk Sociologi, vol. 25, no. 1, 1, 2014, pp. 103–110. rauli.cbs.dk,
Weiss, Holger. ‘The Danish Gold Coast as a Multinational and Entangled Space, c. 1700–1850’. Scandinavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity, 2013, 243–260,
This chapter gives an outline of the intertwined multiple cultural and social dynamics in the Danish enclaves and their hinterlands on the Gold Coast (Ghana) during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Similar to the other European ports of exchange, the Danish forts had been built next to African settlements. The interaction between the Europeans and the Africans had created a multicultural and transnational space where expressions of early modern proto-globalisation intermingled with local cultures of particular societies. Apart from discussing the multinational composition of the Danish personnel, the chapter highlights the African and Euro-African spaces at Danish Accra, focusing on how foreign cultural artefacts and ideas were combined with local ones.
Lunde, Arne, and Anna Westerstahl Stenport. ‘Helga Crane’s Copenhagen: Denmark, Colonialism, and Transnational Identity in Nella Larsen’s “Quicksand”’. Comparative Literature, vol. 60, no. 3, [Duke University Press, University of Oregon], 2008, pp. 228–243.
Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“The Christened Mulatresses”: Euro-African Families in a Slave-Trading Town’. The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 70, no. 2, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2013, pp. 371–398.
In the 1760s “Mulatresse Lene” was cassaret (married) to Danish interim governor and slave trader Frantz Joachim Kühberg in Osu on the Gold Coast. The local history of Ga-Danish families such as hers in Osu illustrates how Euro-African women on the West African coast could benefit from marrying European slave traders and could use these marriages to expand their room for maneuver in the coastal society. By marrying European men, christening their children, and sending them to the church school at the Danish fort, Euro-African women claimed a powerful intermediary position in the racialized social hierarchy of the Atlantic slave trade, and as they did so they helped reproduce this same racial hierarchy. Yet Euro-African families were not just taking advantage of their position to widen their opportunities; they were also using it as a means of protection in a violent and stressful slave-trading environment. At the height of the slave trade in the second half of the eighteenth century, Africans participating in the slave trade—even elite Euro-Africans such as Kühberg and her family—were under pressure to protect themselves and their families from being sold across the Atlantic.
Ipsen, Pernille. ‘“Plant Ikke Upas-Træet Om Vor Bolig”: Colonial Haunting, Race, and Interracial Marriage in Hans Christian Andersen’s Mulatten (1840)’. Scandinavian Studies, vol. 88, no. 2, Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study, University of Illinois Press, 2016, pp. 129–158.
Madsen, Lian Malai, Martha Sif Karrebaek, and Janus Spindler. The Amager Project: A Study of Language and Social Life of Minority Children and Youth. (Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies; No. 52).
Martha S. Karrebæk.. Pigs and Pork in Denmark: Meaning Change, Morality and Traditional Foods. WP230, Literacies, Working Papers in Urban Language. 2017.
This paper engages with meanings of pork and pigs, as they are revealed in Denmark today. The main objective is to discuss the relation between use and understandings as revealed in interaction in different settings, on the one hand, and how such situational uses relate to nation-wide mass-mediated discourses, on the other. The porcine area lends itself to such an analysis, as pork carries a range of important indexicalities in contemporary Denmark. It signifies tradition, industrialization, and an anti-immigration stance. Interactional data come from three field-studies, from a school, a fine-dining restaurant and a fast food restaurant. The media data come from three recent debates on Denmark, Danish values, and immigrants versus Danes.
Karrebæk, Martha Sif, Københavns Universitet, and Humanistiske Fakultet. At blive et børnehavebarn: en minoritetsdrengs sprog, interaktion og deltagelse i børnefællesskabet. PhD dissertation. Københavns Universitet, Humanistisk Fakultet, 2011.
Keskinen, Suvi. ‘Antiracist Feminism and the Politics of Solidarity in Neoliberal Times’. Feminisms in the Nordic Region: Neoliberalism, Nationalism and Decolonial Critique, Eds. Suvi Keskinen, Pauline Stoltz, and Diana Mulinari, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, 201–221.
This chapter analyses the establishment and expansion of antiracist feminism in the last decade throughout the Nordic region, with new groups, media sites, and public events organised, especially in the large cities. I examine antiracist feminist and queer of colour activism in which the main or sole actors belong to groups racialised as non-white or “others” in Nordic societies. A fundamental argument developed in the chapter is the central role and potential of these emerging social movements to reconfigure political agendas and tackling of pressing societal issues, due to their capacity to overlap and connect the borders of antiracist, feminist, and (to some extent) class-based politics. The chapter further argues for the usefulness of theorising the neoliberal turn of racial capitalism as the societal condition in which feminist activism takes place.
Thomsen, Jens Peter, Bolette Moldenhawer, and Tine Kallehave. Ethnic Differences in Education in Denmark: Survey Report. EDUMIGROM, 2010.
The primary purpose of this report is to give a descriptive and analytical account of the lives of minority urban youth at the end of their primary schooling by looking at their school experiences and achievements, plans for future education and work life, attitudes towards school, and relations to peers, as well as the shaping of identity among minority students. Focusing on youth in the 8th and 9th grades in primary school in Copenhagen, Denmark, the report not only differentiates among ethnic groups in order to identify significant social patterns among groups, but also explores how ethnic differentiations intersect with other variables relating to the students’ background (gender, parents’ socio-economic status and educational level, and so on), and characteristics of everyday social life (social interaction, peer relations, etc). The report aims to contribute to a growing body of research on early identity formation and interethnic relations among young people in primary schools as a way of understanding how and why social positions of young people are structured the way they are.
Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær, and Bart Bonikowski. ‘Is Civic Nationalism Necessarily Inclusive? Conceptions of Nationhood and Anti-Muslim Attitudes in Europe’. European Journal of Political Research, vol. 59, no. 1, 2020, pp. 114–136.
Despite the centrality of national identity in the exclusionary discourse of the European radical right, scholars have not investigated how popular definitions of nationhood are connected to dispositions toward Muslims. Moreover, survey-based studies tend to conflate anti-Muslim attitudes with general anti-immigrant sentiments. This article contributes to research on nationalism and out-group attitudes by demonstrating that varieties of national self-understanding are predictive of anti-Muslim attitudes, above and beyond dispositions toward immigrants. Using latent class analysis and regression models of survey data from 41 European countries, it demonstrates that conceptions of nationhood are heterogeneous within countries and that their relationship with anti-Muslim attitudes is contextually variable. Consistent with expectations, in most countries, anti-Muslim attitudes are positively associated with ascriptive – and negatively associated with elective (including civic) – conceptions of nationhood. Northwestern Europe, however, is an exception to this pattern: in this region, civic nationalism is linked to greater antipathy toward Muslims. It is suggested that in this region, elective criteria of belonging have become fused with exclusionary notions of national culture that portray Muslims as incompatible with European liberal values, effectively legitimating anti-Muslim sentiments in mainstream political culture. This may heighten the appeal of anti-Muslim sentiments not only on the radical right, but also among mainstream segments of the Northwestern European public, with important implications for social exclusion and political behaviour.
Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘The Democratic Consequences of Anti-Immigrant Political Rhetoric: A Mixed Methods Study of Immigrants’ Political Belonging’. Political Behavior, May 2019.
Anti-immigrant political rhetoric is proliferating in Europe, inspiring research to examine the potential effects on public opinion. However, studies of the reactions of first- and second-generation immigrants—the objects of this rhetoric—remain scarce. This article argues that political rhetoric should be treated as a context of integration affecting political outcomes, in particular political belonging. To that end, the article combines qualitative evidence from focus group discussions conducted in Denmark, a high-salience context, and quantitative evidence from cross-national survey and party manifesto data from 18 Western European countries over a 12-year period. In addition to demonstrating a negative mean effect, the analyses show that those most in focus of contemporary political messages (Muslims and immigrants with shorter educations) are most affected, suggesting a sophisticated processing of political rhetoric. In contrast, traditional explanations concerning structural incorporation, generational integration, and exposure to rhetoric are not supported. The article discusses the implications of the results for democratic inclusion in contemporary Europe.
Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘”Hvor dansk skal man være for at være dansk?” Hvordan unge efterkommere af indvandrere fra Mellemøsten oplever mulighederne for at høre til i Danmark’. Politica, no. 3, 2017, pp. 312–329.
Forskningen i integration af indvandrere og deres børn interesserer sig typisk for funktionelle og objektive mål, mens der mere sjældent sættes fokus på den identifikationsmæssige integration. På baggrund af dybdegående interviews undersøger jeg, hvordan unge efterkommere af indvandrere fra Mellemøsten opfatter grænsen til det danske, og hvilke konsekvenser dette har for deres følelse af nationalt tilhør. Analysen viser, at der er udbredt konsensus blandt interviewpersonerne om, hvilke markører der ekskluderer en fra det danske. Variationen i graden af nationalt tilhør blandt interviewpersonerne (fra sikker identifikation til dis-identifikation) forklares af, hvordan de opfatter deres egen placering i forhold til grænsen.
Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær. ‘Ghetto-Society-Problem: A Discourse Analysis of Nationalist Othering: Ghetto-Society-Problem’. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, vol. 16, no. 1, Apr. 2016, pp. 83–99.
This article examines the role of the ghetto in Danish political discourse. While ghetto studies have previously been conducted within the field of urban sociology, the article departs from this tradition in offering a discourse analytical perspective on the former Danish government’s strategy against ghettoization (The Ghetto Plan). Integrating perspectives from the literature on nationalism with Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse analytical framework, the analysis argues that the ghetto marks an antagonistic anti-identity to Danish society. This discursive construction of the ghetto against society has the effect of confirming Danish identity, while at the same time precluding possibilities of the ghetto’s integration in society. Highlighting these implications, the study feeds into societal debates on integration, and suggests a framework for studying nationalist othering in a discourse analytical perspective.
PDF: https://pure.au.dk/portal/files/124980286/Ghetto_Society_Problem_Accepted_manuscript_2016.pdf .
Nassri, Lamies. ‘Os’ og ‘Dem’ : et studie af de dominerende offentlige diskursers påvirkning på nutidige københavnske unges situationelle konstruktion og forhandling af identitet. MA Thesis. Københavns Universitet, Humanistisk Fakultet, 2018.
Karrebæk, Martha Sif. ‘Rye Bread for Lunch, Lasagne for Breakfast: Enregisterment, Classrooms, and National Food Norms in Superdiversity’. Engaging Superdiversity: Recombining Spaces, Times and Language Practices, Eds. Karel Arnaut, Jan Blommaert, Martha Sif Karrebæk, and Massimiliano Spotti, Bristol; Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters, 2017, 90–120. Rye bread for lunch, lasagne for breakfast: Enregisterment, classrooms, and national food norms in superdiversity
Karrebæk, Martha Sif. ‘”Hvad betyder wallah?”: Sociolingvistisk forandring, sprog-i-brug og arabisk i dansk’. NyS, Nydanske Sprogstudier, no. 58, 58, May 2020.
Børn i Danmark i dag møder sproglige ressourcer, som knyttes til forskellige måder at tale på; ’dansk’, ’arabisk’ eller den måde, man taler på med vennerne. Dermed er sproglig diversitet et (hverdags)faktum. Hvad det betyder for såvel udviklingen af dansk som for sprogbrugerne selv, er et væsentligt spørgsmål. I en social tilgang til sprog inddrages mere end ét semantisk niveau i betydningsanalysen. Aktiviteter, domæner og de forhandlinger, der foregår gennem og i forhold til sprog, er væsentlige for, hvad sproget kommer til at betyde. I denne artikel vil jeg bidrage til diskussionen af relationen mellem sociolingvistisk sprogforandring og børns situerede sproglige møder. Jeg undersøger sprogbrug hos børn i en ret almindelig københavnsk skoleklasse med elever fra forskellige sociale, etniske og sproglige baggrunde fra 0. til 4. klasse. En dreng med dansk baggrund er den centrale deltager. Fokus er på den ideologiske og metapragmatiske forståelse af sproglige ressourcer, der associeres med ikke-dansk. Bidraget anvender et begrebsapparat fra den lingvistiske antropologi såsom registergørelse, indeksikalitet, det komplette sproglige faktum og forskelsskabende akser. Data inkluderer optagelser af hverdagsliv og mere eliciteret sprog-i-brug.
Hansen, Gro Inge. ‘”De sidder i deres egen lille gruppe ovre i hjørnet”– en pilotundersøgelse af etniske minoritetsstuderendes møde med studie- og undervisningsmiljøet på farmaceutstudiet’. Dansk Universitetspædagogisk Tidsskrift, vol. 9, no. 16, 16, Mar. 2014, pp. 58–71.
I artiklen fokuseres på, hvordan studie- og undervisningsmiljøet på farmaceutstudiet på Københavns Universitet (KU) kan risikere at danne ramme for en adskillelse mellem etniske minoritetsstuderendes og etnisk danske studerendes faglige og sociale studieliv. Der argumenteres for, hvordan dette kan påvirke etniske minoritetsstuderendes uddannelsesudbytte og i værste fald bevirke, at de dropper ud af deres studie. Afslutningsvis perspektiveres omkring, hvad man kan gøre for at mindske disse skel i studie- og undervisningsmiljøet på farmaceutstudiet. Udgangspunktet for denne artikel er en kvalitativ pilotundersøgelse udført i forbindelse med et speciale om studiepraksis og pædagogisk praksis på medicinstudiet og på farmaceutstudiet på KU.
The academic environment at the University of Copenhagen’s School of Pharmaceutical Sciences may contribute to a separation between ethnic minority students and ethnic Danish students in both social and vocational settings. This article examines how this could affect ethnic minority students’ educational outcomes, and in a worst-case scenario lead to their dropout of the School of Pharmaceutical Science. . A number of suggestions to address the situation are outlined. The article is based on a qualitative pilot analysis carried out as a part of a Master thesis about study practices and pedagogical practices in the Medicine Program at the Panum Institute and the School of Pharmaceutical Science at the University of Copenhagen.
Enheden for Brugerundersøgelser, editor. Etniske minoriteters oplevelser i mødet med det danske sygehus: en kvalitativ undersøgelse af forældres oplevelser under deres barns indlæggelse på en børneafdeling. København: , 2007.